PRODUCTION OF SOAP AND DETERGENT THROUGH COID PROCESS


PRODUCTION OF SOAP AND DETERGENT THROUGH COID PROCESS  

ABSTRACT:   

Today in every market exists different types of soap and detergents.  Some of them are not efficacious as advertised because the ingredients of such soaps are not always in right proportion and as such the efficacy of active ingredients is not rendered.  It is now generally accepted that soap produced using linear alkyl benzine sulphonate has a high brodegralbility effect.  Based on this a high quality soap and detergent has been produced using L.A.B.S. the soaps and detergent produce compared with that of large scale industrial products (Omo) in terms of foamability and washability showed relatively equal degree of washability and foamability.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER   ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Definition

1.2 Statement of Problem

1.3 Aim/Objectives

1.4 significance of Study

1.5 Hypothesis

1.6 Limitation of the Study

CHAPTER   TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Surfactants

2.2 Other Pre-over Products

2.3 War-Time and Post-War progress

2.4 Present Developments

2.5 Soapy Detergent

2.6 Soapless Detergent

CHAPTER   THREE

3.0 Materials and Method

3.1 Materials

3.2 Apparatus

3.3 Methodology

CHAPTER   FOUR

4.0 Soap Analysis

4.1 Observations

4.2 Calculation/Data Analysis

CHAPTER   FIVE

5.0 RESULT, CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATION

5.1 RESULT

5.2 CONCLUSION

5.3 RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   INTRODUCTION

Soap can be defined as the sodium or potassium salt of fatty acid, made by hydrolyzing fats and oils with caustic alkali (cook 1964).  Soap acts as a good cleansing agent in soft water, at an interphase of greasy and water.

In hard water soap reacts with the mague sum and calcium ions to form insoluble precipitate (scum), which lowers the cleansing effect of the soap.  This abnormality in soap led to the introduction of synthetic detergent.

Detergents are sodium salts of an acid.  They are substance that causes oil or grease to form emulsions in water so that soap acts as a cleansing agent.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The process of soap production using linear alkyl benzene sulphonate is time consuming, and this posed a little problem.   Also raw water ials and equipment used in carrying out the production was costly and may be beyond the reach of the average citizens.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The major aim of this research work is to produce soapless detergent of high quality.  It is designed to examine the method used in the production of soapless detergent that does not require much money.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

It is hoped that this research work and those carried out will help immensely in the advancement of soap production.  The study will provide effective method of producing soap at desired qualities in the market today because soaps and detergents sold in the market today, instead of cleaning materials, they tend to be corrosive to the skin, likewise materials been washed.  Either inadequate mixing of substances in their right proportion or adding of one of the cheap ingredients that is corrosive to the skin and fabrics in general may cause this.

1.5 HYPOTHESIS

All cleaning agents are soap.

All cleaning agents are not soap.

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This project work is limited to the production of soapless detergent.

CHAPTER   TWO

2.0 LITERATURE  REVIEW

2.1 SURFACTANTS

The key to all detergent action as the surfactants so called because they are found to serve as modifies.  (James E. Brady (1990).  They modify the surface quality of water by weakening the forces between water molecules.  In simple terms, this helps the water to move readily at the object being washed.  This is because the character of the surfactant molecules which though far too small to be observed, are known to contain a hydrophilic head (water loving), which anchors in the surface attached to a hydrophilic tail (water hating).  That is forced to protrude from the surface so breaking the strong electrostatis 

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PRODUCTION OF SOAP AND DETERGENT THROUGH COID PROCESS



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