PREPARATION OF CLEANSING CREAM


PREPARATION OF CLEANSING CREAM 

ABSTRACT:   

This research work is a detailed study on preparation of cleansing cream. The aim is to prepare cleansing cream of better quality than the available ones in the market. The study explores the work done by some eminent scholars in connection with cream and preparation of cleansing cream. Cream can be defined as an article intended to be rubbed, sprinkled, sprayed on, or otherwise applied to the human body or any part there of, for beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or attiring the physical appearance of the skin, leaving it soft and smooth, thereby making the body look younger. Creams are of different types which include: cleansing cream, eye and lip cleanser, floral oil, nourishing cleansing milk, and softening lotion etc. the present investigation revealed that temperature and concentration of materials have the most crucial effect on creams as manifested by precipitation, and separation and also loss of creamy effect. Cream emulsion containing hydroquinone, lightens and bleaches the skin while cream emulsion containing benzoic acids are agents against microbial attacks on the skin. The materials used in cleansing cream preparation include: paraffin wax, liquid paraffin, stearic acid, borax, and water. Finally, the performance was incorporate into the cream at the temperature of 450C and a white fine cream was obtained as the result of the analysis.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page 

Dedication

Acknowledgment 

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Aim and objectives of the study 

1.3 Statement of the problem

1.4 Significance of the study

1.5 Hypothesis

1.6 Limitation of the study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review

2.1 Definition of cream

2.2 The historical background of cream

2.3 Classification of cream

2.4 Emulsions

2.5 Emulsifying agents

2.6 The colloid state

2.7 Features of colloidal system

2.8 Types of colloidal system

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Materials

3.2 Method

CHAPTER FOUR

Result

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Recommendation

Bibliography

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Cream can be regarded as an article intended to be rubbed, sprinkled, sprayed on or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof, for beautifying or altering the physical appearance of the skin, leaving it soft and smooth, thereby making the body look younger. Cream constituents who are found to be the foundation of most creams include:

a.     Fats and oil, which forms the base

b.     Water or alcohol, which acts as the liquid 

c. Emulsion, which holds the mixture together

The improvement in modern technology has led to the production of creams for special purpose. For example cream emulsion containing hydroquinone lightens the skin and it is also known as bleaching cream while cream that contains benzoic acid is used against microbial attacks on the skin, (berg and caster 1978). It is well known in interfacial science that paraffin oil have its importance as conditioning and lubricating agent while borax serves as a cleansing agent. For oil in water emulsion, stearic acid is specially used which is the basic substance in cream preparation and serves as emulsifying agent, with new formulation, improvement, can still be made on the already existing creams as well.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study aims at preparing cleansing cream of better quality than the available ones in the market. It therefore has the following objectives:

i. To determine the materials used in preparation of cleansing cram of high quality.

ii. To examine the method involved in preparing the cleansing cream that does not have huge financial involvement.            

1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Over the years, there has been increasingly rapid growth in manufacturing of fake and adulterated creams; the producers produce such cream(s) with little or no effort to use the actual material and method involved in its preparation. When such cream(s) is used, it will cause irritation to the skin because of the inability to use the adequate materials and to test the pH density and viscosity of the cream.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will provide effective method of producing cleansing cream with desired qualities. Creams sold in the market when used instead of either cleansing or protecting the skin cause burns and removes the skin. This is caused by either inadequate of mixing the materials in their right proportions or adding one of the cheap ingredients that will either be acidic or basic which reacts with the protein of the body.

1.5 HYPOTHESIS

H0 Cleansing cream causes skin irritation

H1 Cleansing cream do not cause any harm to the skin.

1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 

This research work is limited to the scope of preparing cleansing cream that does not cause irritation to the skin.

.

PREPARATION OF CLEANSING CREAM



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