GASTROENTERITIS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN ENUGU METROPOLIS (6-12 YRS)


GASTROENTERITIS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN ENUGU METROPOLIS (6-12 YRS)

ABSTRACT: 

A total of fifty faecal samples were collected form pupils in airport primary school Emene Enugu were used for the study. The duration of the investigation was between February August 2005. These samples were  cultured and their causative organisms determined using macconkey agar, deocycholate citrate agar and an alkaline peptone water which was preparect according to manufacturers instruction .

The species of organisms isolated include; escherichia coil 8  (29 %) Klebsiella 5 (18%) Pseudomonas auroginosa 4 (14 %) shigella 3 (11%) proteus 2 (7%) staphylococcus SPP 2 (7%) respectively. These organism have a lot of health implication associated with gastroenteritis.

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1

Number of organism isolated with their percentage from school children

Table ii

Biochemical test for the identification of the bacterial isolates. (prescott et al 2005)

Table III

Pie chart representation of the organisms isolated form school children

Table IV

Histogram representation of the organisms isolated form school children

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                     

Certification                                 

Dedication                                     

Acknowledgement                                

Abstract                                     

List of table             

1.    CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1     Aims and objectives                         

1.2     Statement of the problem                         

1.3     Hypothesis                                 

1.4    Scope/ limitations of the study     

2.    CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Environmental factor                         

2.2     Bacterial diseases of the lower alimentary system         

2.3     Sources of infection     

3.0     CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1     material                                 

3.2     Method                                 

3.3     Method of culture                             

3.4     Plate reading                             

3.5     Biochemical reaction     

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULT                         

CHAPTER FIVE – Discussion and conclusion             

CHAPTER SIX

Reference                                     

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Appendix 3

Appendix 4

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Gastroenteritis is a disease condition due to the inflammation of the mucous of the stomach and intestine. Many microorganisms contaminating food and water can cause acute gastroenteritis. In most cases it runs its own course over several (days. However it can be a serious condition if the fluid loss is sever enough to cause dehydration. When food is the source of the pathogen the condition is often called food  poisoning (Archeson 200)

Gastroenteritis can arise in two ways the microorganisms may actually produce a food borne infection, that is, they may first colonize the gastrointestinal tract and grow within it, then either invade host tissues or secrete exo- toxins (Johnson, 1999).

Alternatively the pathogens may secrete an exo- toxins that contaminates the food and is ingested by the host. This is some times reffered to as food intoxication because the toxins ingested and the presence of the living microorganisms is not required. Because theses toxins of the disrupt the functioning  of intestinal mucosa they are called enterotoxins (Sanders and sanders 1997)

Most cases of gastroenteritis are due to viral infection about a half are caused by the rotavirus, first discovered and described at the royal children’s Hospital university of Melbourne in the early 1970 various other  virus may cause the same symptoms as well as bacteria like campylobacter protozoa and helminthes. In most cases the precise infective agent is not identified. It is only when symptoms are persisting that stools are sent for microscopy and culture in the laboratory (Nachamkin 1992).

On a global scale gastroenteritis is a massive health problem. About 5 million people die each year, mainly young children in underdevloped countries most deaths are due to dehgdration, in adequate fluid replacement and cirulatory collapse. In Australia, Asia, African and South America an occasional fatality still occurs with gastroenteritis again mainly due to complication of sever dehydration A rotavirus vaccine has been developed in Australia and may eventually have  extensive world wide application (Prescott et al 2005).

The main symptoms of gastroenteritis are vomiting diarliea and cramping abdominal pain. Sometimes of fever may also be present. In more severe cases, signs of dehydration may appear a young child may look floppy  and pale and  the   urine out put may be reduced. these signs means that urgent medical assessments and treatment are required.  

1.    AIMS  AND OBJECTIVES

⦁    to determine the prevalenble of gastroenteritis  in primary  school children

⦁    also to implicate in gastroenteritis .

⦁    to relate the environment of the pupil to the types of diseases which they acquire from it.

1.    STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

There are factors in the environment which iduce pior sanitation and the filthy habits of the children ideal for transmission of gastroenteritis, therefore infection rate is expected high.

1.    HYPOTHESIS

H0 -    prevalence of gastroenteritis caused by bacteria and protozoa is common in primary school children

H1 -    Although environment favours infection prevalence is not common in primary school children .

1.4    SCOPE    LIMITION    OF    STUDY

-     Limited to bacteria and protozoa involved in gastroenteritis as identifiable by the method used.

Technology of viral identification  is not feasible within the facities in this laboratory while helminthes parasite were excluded for case of control.

.

GASTROENTERITIS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN ENUGU METROPOLIS (6-12 YRS)



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