EVALUATION OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)


EVALUATION OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)  

ABSTRACT:    

A study was carried to ascertain the potency of some techniques used in diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV).  Two hundred and five samples (203) were collected from the patients from the university of Nigerian teaching hospital and was analysed using Elisa kit, which has the ability to detect antibodies and antigens in the patients serum, the Western blots were used as the confirmatory test, to the Elisa test, In case where there is false positive of Elisa test, it is specific and sensitive, Radioimmunoasay looks for the antigens which are radioactively label.  The patients result shows that 154 patients out of the 205 diagnosed were negative and only 51 patients were positive.  The Elisa kit were best used because of  its sensitivity and specificity.  It is very cheap and can be easily seen in the market, unlike the Radiommunoassay which are rare and very expensive to be used.

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1: Number of both sexes, age, and the results of patience diagnosed.

Table 2: Number of both positive and negative Results

Table 3: Numbers of negative results with their percentage

Table 4: Number of negative results with their percentage

Table 5: Rate of infection among the study group

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Acknowledgment

Dedication

Abstract

List of tables

CHAPTER ONE

1.0Introduction

1.1Hypothesis

1.2Aims and Objectives

1.3Statement of problem

1.4Limitation of study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0Literature review

2.1Pathogenesis of HIV infection

2.2Epidemiology of HIV

2.3Transmission of HIV infection

2.4Viral replication of HIV

2.5Symptoms of HIV infection

2.6Life cycle of HIV

2.7Facts about HIV/AIDS

CHAPTER THREE

3.0Materials and Method

3.1Current  diagnosis of HIV infection

3.2Laboratory diagnosis

3.3Radiomminoassay

3.4Enzymes Linked immunosorbentassay Elisa

3.5Western blot

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0Results

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0Discussion and conclusion

References

Appendices

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a condition that slowly destroys the body Immune system and makes the body vulnerable to infections.  The virus is typically called Human Immunodeficiency  virus (HIV) because it destroys the Immune system of the individual which is responsible for protecting the individual from disease.  The immunodeficiency associated with, HIV infection can be enormous, and it is the major cause of death, due to the disfucntion of immune system.  The problem with AIDS is , sits neurological dementia complex.  HIV is a lentivirus, a subgroup of retrovirus.  The  family of virus is known for  lafency, persistent viremia, infection of the nervous system and weak hot immune system.  Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is small ultra-microscopic organism that infect living things and uses them to make copies of itself when one’s Immune system is damaged by HIV, AIDS take place (Gallants, 1999).

HIV was first recognized in 1981 in Homosexual men in New York city.  In the united states the HIV is now known to have originated from chimpanzees, transmission from chimps to human.  Initially, there was wild speculation about what might be the cause of AIDs, but in 1982, the centre for disease control had convincing epidermological evidence that AIDS was caused by a new infectious agents.

Dulbecco et-al (1983, located small quantities of the new virus named Lymphademopalty virus (LAN) but enough to be used an antigenina blood test which showed that AIDS patients were infected with the virus.  WHO, (19097), responded that the number of patients living with AIDS has escaculated, a figure of 9000 was confirmed by may 1997.  In African AIDs was first responded in 1982.  In Nigerian it was first responded in 1986, among commercial sex workers in Lagos and calabar.  In 2003 the seroprevalence has been on the increase, despite the comprehensive and successful prevention effort in many part of the would, 4. 1 million new HIV infection was expected to have occurs  In 2003 alone, which could have been contributed by an estimated 9,020 to 10,000 infection per day.

 Currently, the health problem in Nigerian considering reports from various hospitals particularly, the tertiary hospitals, place  AIDS infections in Nigerian at a very serious state.  the potential and propensity for widespread is enormous and the debilitating and negative effect n the economy, the population category affected the working class and the dependents which constitute the penultimate individuals to the working class.  HIV infections in this direction and orientation should be healed as a national emergency in Nigeria.

Meanwhile, Dr.  Robert Gallo’s laboratory begin recovering a virus from AIDS patient, and reported the finding in the science journal.  A  number of these vinal isolated was introduced together into continuous cell cultures to see if a strain of the virus could replicate in the cells one did replicates and Gallo’s named the virus HILV. III because of the resemblance to two human T-lymphotropic viruses.  (Neser, 2001).

By 2004, it was shown that many esymtomatic people  was infected with virus and could transmits it and that the epidemic was far more extensive than previously suspected.  Blood test was generally available for routine testing to donate blood.  Thus markedly improving the safety of blood transfusion and products prepared from pooled blood (peiperls, 1995)

1.1 Hypothesis

H.O: There is significant difference in the result of Westernblots (WB), Enzymes Linked Immuno (Elisa) and Radiommuneoassay kit among HIV carriers.

HI: There is no significant difference in the result of  Enzymes linked – immurosorbentassay (Elise), Western blots (WB), and Radommunoasay kit (RIA) among HIV carriers.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

To evalulate the current techniques used in the diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

To help recommend the best and most reliable one essaying HIV

1.3 Statement of problems

The major problem with HIV/AIDs in developing would has been the failure to set realistic priorities with respect to both research and control.

As  clinical diagnosis fail to effectively by emphasis on the virus attack is they are increasing case on HIV infection.  Some specific techniques are use for the diagnosis of the HIV infection.

1.4 Limitation of the study 

this work is carried out in university of Nigeria Teaching hospital Enugu (UNTH).  There is lack of finance in the completion of the project work, lack of the project work, lack of the availability of time also reduce the period of time used.

.

EVALUATION OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.ORG
Researchwap.org is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.org guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.org is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.org" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.