PREPARATION OF LOCAL SOAP WITH WOOD ASH DERIVED FROM THE CALYX AND THE COROLLA OF PALM FLOWER (EJEASIS GUINEENSIS)
Soap is the earliest detergent known to man and apparently was first made by the Romans from animal fats and oil and wood ash which is an alkali that contains potassium carbonate, sodium, potassium hydroxide called potash leached from the wood ash. Soap can be defined as the sodium or potassium salt of fatty acids, made by heating fats and oil with caustic soda or caustic potash respectively. Most soap was manufactured by an alkaline hydrolysis reaction called the Saponification, which is the reaction of fats and oil with alkali.
This research project is thus a research on preparation of local soap with woodash derived from the calyx and the corolla of palm flower (ejeasisguineensis).
Chapter one of the study lays a theoretical framework for subsequent chapters. Following the general introduction, types of soap, the problem statement and the objective of the study which provided basis for the significance of the study. The limitation of this study were also highlighted.
In the literature review as contained in chapter two, works of various authors, international and local journals were reviewed to elicit views on preparation of local soap with woodash derived from the calyx and the corolla of palm flower (ejeasisguineensis).
Chapter three, research methodology, sample collection, field experimentation/sample collection, areas expected to cover in lab works, fabrication of squrpment used for the extraction, ignition of “ngu”, extraction procedure, crystainzation and recrystallization, determination of the ph sample, physical examination and tests, determination of caustic strength of solution, extraction of caustic at different distant time were highlighted and discussed.
Chapter four was based on presentation of results. This chapter was sub-divided into presentation of results for extraction studies, of caustic from ash and preliminary test on sample, how to prepare 0.2ml hcl, result of preliminary tests and filtration end point and qualitative analysis.
Finally, chapter five was divided into discussion of results and conclusion, ashing of the wood, extraction of caustic from ash, determination of ph and strength of the caustic strength, qualitative analysis, conclusion, recommendation and summary.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval Page - - - - - - - - ii
Declaration - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vii
CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.1Background of the Study------
1.2 TYPES OF SOAP - - - - - - - -
1.3AIM AND OBJECTIVES-------
1.4STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS------
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE - - - - - - - -
1.6LIMITATION OF THESE STUDIES------
CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 SOURCES OF WOOD ASH FOR LOCAL MANUFACTURE- - -
2.2 SYNTHETIC METHOD FOR CAUSTIC SODA- - - - -
2.3 SOLUTY PROCESS (AMMONIA ASH) - - - - - -
2.4 LEBLANCE PROCESS- - - - - - - - -
2.5 CHEMISTRY OF ALKALI- - - - - - - -
2.6EFFECT ON SOAP MANUFACTURE------
CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 METHODOLOGY - - - - - - -
3.1 SAMPLE COLLECTION- - - - - - - - -
3.2 FIELD EXPERIMENTATION/SAMPLE COLLECTION- - - -
3.3 AREAS EXPECTED TO COVER IN LAB WORKS- - - -
3.4 FABRICATION OF SQURPMENT USED FOR THE EXTRACTION- -
3.5 IGNITION OF “NGU” - - - - - - - - -
3.6 EXTRACTION PROCEDURE- - - - - - -
3.7 CRYSTAINZATION AND RECRYSTALLIZATIONPROCESS USING DISTILLATION APPARATUS- - - - - -
3.8 DETERMINATION OF THE PH SAMPLE- - - - - -
3.9 PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND TESTS- - - - - -
3.10 DETERMINATION OF CAUSTIC STRENGTH OF SOLUTION- -
3.11 EXTRACTION OF CAUSTIC AT DIFFERENT DISTANT TIME- -
CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0PRESENTATION OF RESULTS-------
4.1PRESENTATION OF RESULTS FOR EXTRACTION STUDIES OF CAUSTIC FROM ASH AND PRELIMINARY TEST ON SAMPLE
4.2 FILTRATION READING FOR DETERMINATIONATION OF CAUSTIC STRENGTH OF SAMPLE - - - - - - -
4.3 HOW TO PREPARE 0.2ml HCL- - - - - - -
4.4 RESULT OF PRELIMINARY TESTS AND FILTRATION ENDPOINT- - - - - - -
4.5 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS- - - - - - -
CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSION - - - - -
5.1ASHING OF THE WOOD-------
5.2EXTRACTION OF CAUSTIC FROM ASH-----
5.3 DETERMINATION OF PH AND STRENGTH OF THE CAUSTIC STRENGTH- - - - - - - - -
5.5 CONCLUSION - - - - - - - --
5.6 RECOMMENDATION - - - - - - - -
5.7 SUMMARY - - - - - - - -- -
References - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix - - - - - - - - - -
Soap is the earliest detergent known to man and apparently was first made by the Romans from animal fats and oil and wood ash which is an alkali that contains potassium carbonate, sodium, potassium hydroxide called potash leached from the wood ash (Robert, 1994). It is also an unsaturated ester since an ester can be split into an alcohol and a carboxylic acid by hydrolysis. Meaning that it does not contain all the solutes that can be dissolve at a particular temperature (KirtOthmer, 1994). Also soap is a metallic salt of a fatty acid because if a metallic base is used in the hydrolysis instead of water, the metallic salt of the carboxylic acid is obtained, not the acid because carboxylic acid are weak acid which dissociates only slightly in solution
Soap can be defined as the sodium or potassium salt of fatty acids, made by heating fats and oil with caustic soda or caustic potash respectively (Cook 1990).
Most soap was manufactured by an alkaline hydrolysis reaction called the Saponification, which is the reaction of fats and oil with alkali.
C3H5 (COOR)3 + 3KOH 3KOOCR + C3H5 (OH)
(where R – represent the hydrocarbon chain) also according to the equation above, soaps was made in huge keittes into which fat and oil and alkali were piped and heated until it boils vigorously.
Saponification is the process used in making soap since ancient times, soaps have been made from vegetable and animal oil and fats looked in alkali (Kott, NaoH) (Steiner, 1990). Soap and detergent are both cleaning agents and both work in the same way, but soap cleanse with the natural occurring materials such as animal fat and wood ash.
1.2 TYPES OF SOAP
In the world of soap manufacturing, there are basically three types of soap, under them they are classified according to their categories:
(1) Foreign Soap
These are soap that is medically investigated to cure a skin diseases. Examples:
(a) Medicated soap
(b) Tablets Soap
These are soap that is operated and purified, dyes and perfumed added, to make the skin mild.
(c) Local Soap
These are meant for a purpose not medically investigated but meant for cleaning ability.
a. Black soap
b. Sida Soap.
But here we are basically on the one made from Local raw material, which is the black soap (NchaNkota).
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
Preparation of soap using local raw materials.
1. To prepare local soap with woodash derived from the calyx and the corolla of palm flower (EjeasisGuineensis), which serves as an alkali.
2. To know the trees in which caustic alkali can be obtained apart from palm tree (EleasisGuineensis).
3. To improve the properly preparation of local soap and high quality local soap.
4. To educate some illiterate local soap producers on how to set a standard in the production of local soap and still retain its effectiveness and for a wider acceptability.
5. To create awareness on the need and importance of locally made soap analysis.
6. To make known to or enlighten especially the local soap producers (both urban and rural manufacturers) on the best and exact quantity or raw materials and methods to use to achieve better results in their products.
7. This research project could as well as form basis for further research work on local soaps analysis in this institution.
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The problems why people are no longer interested in the local soap is because it causes irritation of the skin; Reason, because they are not medically investigated and are not dirtiness causes dust, grief and stiffs on fabrics in the heading process becaus3 of the inaccurate measurement of the alkali and inability to bring out the purest form of the alkali. Also some smokes and wood particles enter into the pot of soap on stirring because of inability to maintain a hygienic on cooking and on stirring.
This soap includes “Builders” as alkaline compound, which improve the cleansing efficiencies, example, in washing of cloth, washing of plate and washing of kitchen utensils.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THESE STUDIES
This research work is limited by the extraction of alkali to manufacture good quality local soap with the leaching process and filtration method and it’s cr6stallization..