ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF RHIZOPUS FROM DECAYING BREAD


ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF RHIZOPUS FROM DECAYING BREAD   

ABSTRACT:   

The Isolation and Identification of Rhizopus from a Decaying Bread were conducted.  The black mould used in the practical was collected from bread.  It is allowed to stay in moist environment or at room temperature for 2 to 3 days.  The mould is then inoculated in the nutrient egar (N.A.) incubated and was isolated and view under the microscope for cultural characteristics.

In the experiment a mass of soft, closely woven white, silky threads was observed.  In the microscope examination, non-deptate masses of round black spores, rhizoid.  This characterized by Rhizopus SP.

In conclusion, since foodstuff from which the mould is isolated is bread, Rhizopus SP which is more prominent in bread than in any other foodstuff.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER   ONE:  INTRODUCTION

1.1 Aim and Objectives

1.2 Hypothesis

1.3 Statement of Problem

1.4 Significance of Study

1.5 Limitation of the Study

CHAPTER   TWO:   LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Composition of Bread and It’s Requirement

2.2 Source of Contamination

2.3 Rhizopus as a spoilage Organism

2.4 Physiological Characteristic of Rhizopus

2.5 Myeotoxins

2.6 Preservative

CHAPTER   THREE:   METHODOLOGY

3.1 Sample Collection

3.2 Direction for Method of preparation of the Medium

3.3 Isolation Method

3.4 Method of Identification

CHAPTER   FOUR:   GENERAL MORPHOLOGY

4.1 general Morphology of Rhizopus

4.2 Mode of Life

4.3 Reproduction of Rhizopus

CHAPTER   FIVE:   RESULT

5.1 Table I

5.2 Table II

CHAPTER   SIX:   CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

6.1 Conclusion

6.2 Recommendation

REFERENCES

CHAPTER   ONE

INTRODUCTION

Rhizopus nigricans belongs to a group of fungi known as the “black moulds”.  It is also known commonly as the “read mould” because if grows freely on moist, state bread.  It appears as a delicate black mass.  It is a common mould, which is widespread in occurrence.  Rhizopus forms a mass of soft, closely woven white silky threads.  This mass, which is known as a mycelium is the vegetative part of the Fungs.  Each silky thread like structure is a hypha.  The ‘mycelium grows not only on the surface of the bread but into it as well.   The bread is known as the substrate.  

The mycelium consists of three sorts of hyphae.  These three sorts of hyphae as stolons which grow horizontally on the substrate (bread), rhizoid or root like hyphae which arise at points where the stolons come into contact with the substrate and sport-angiophores.  The rhizoids are much branched hyphae which penetrate into the substrate.  They are able to digest and absorb organic food.  The sporangiophores are erect unbranched hyphae arising from the stolons at the same points where rhizoids are formal.  

They grow vertically upwards and give rise to the reproductive structures called sporangia.  (Sargini et al, 1979).

The common bread mould (Rhizopus) finds new bakery items by means of air-born spores.  Once the baked good is invaded, it won’t be long before black sporangia full of spores are formed.  Rhizopus stolonifera (black mould) causes the black bread mould that forms cottony masses on the surface of moist bread exposed to the air.  Rhizopus is aerobic and grow easily on bread since the slight acidity of bread is conductive to their development it can also grow on solid substance such as cloth, vegetables, leather, paper, food, and many other materials when they are neglected in cupboard, boxes or other damp places, especially during the wet seasons.

Effect of contaminated bread in the society can lead to an epidemic of gastro-intestine disorder, where by that particular environment that consumed the contaminated bread becomes affected.  As a result of this, a lot of consideration should be given to breads that are served into the community to be sold, and this is done by the standardized system called “Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point” (HCCP).  

This method is now generally considered as a choice for ensuring safety of foods.  (Jay, 1996, De Beer and Beunier 1999).  Hazard analysis critical control point involves in identifying places in the production process where hazards could occur i.e. the ccp “Critical Control Point)” and put monitoring procedures in place to prevent these hazard occurring.  Even with this system in place.   A sample still needs to be tested for the presence of microorganisms.

1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This project work is based on the Isolation and Identification of the fungal organism responsible for the spoilage of Bread.  It is also to determine the rate of growth of the Organisms and to know its ability to grow on inhibitory media.  To examine the species of fungi that infests breads at room temperature.

1.2 HYPOTHESIS

Ho - Fungi (filamentous) and yeast has no affect on bread.

Hi - Filamentous fungi and Rhizopus are responsible for spoilage of 

bread when infested.

1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Problem encountered by the society as a result of the consumption of contaminated bread ingested with fungal organisms at circulation in the market places are related health wise.  Health wise in the sense that when contaminated breads are eaten, it leads to gastrointestinal disorder which is as a result of ingestion of toxins deposited by some fungal organism on the bread.  This can lead to an epidemic, when a batch of contaminated bread is in circulation and is being purchased and consumed by various individual.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The justification of this research study is to ensure that well prepared baked bread devoid of fungal growth is being circulated or sold.  It is also carried out on the basis of selling well-baked breads, uncontaminated so as to avoid any sort of food poising associated with the ingestion of bread.

1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research work will be limited to the isolation and identification of fungal organism present i.e. (Rhizopus nigrican), incubated under room temperature.  This is also limited or restricted on the examination of the end product, which is the baked bread and not its raw material which is the flours.  Practical works won’t be carried out on the pathogenicity of species identified, on.  This could be another area of study for interested microbiologists.

.

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF RHIZOPUS FROM DECAYING BREAD



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.ORG
Researchwap.org is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.org guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.org is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.org" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.