PRODUCTION OF BLEACH SOLUTION AND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED BLEACH SOLUTION


PRODUCTION OF BLEACH SOLUTION AND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED BLEACH SOLUTION    

ABSTRACT: 

Bleaching is the process in which net oral colouring matter is removed from a fiber, yana or fabries.  It ranges from simple to complex type depending on the ingredeient moderal the bleach solution chosen in this research work is oxochtorale:  (i) acid solution (Hocl).   The bleach was produced when 100mls of hydrochloric acid was pound into the flask and 20g of potassium tetraozo magnate (vii) was also put into the round bottom flask.  The flask containing the Hcl was connected into one of the opening, so that the Hcl ran into the round flask to make contact with the potassium tetraoxomaganate (vii) Kmno4.  The chlorine gas was liberated and passed on till the water became saturated form exochlorate (i) acid, which is the bleach solution.  This is an oxidative process.  The equation is thus:

ch(g)+ H2O (L) Hoclca2)+  Hcl(og).  

The oxochlorate (i) acid formed is an effective bleaching agent.  The bleach produced was compared with commercially produced bleach.  The control bleach used was Jik a product of PZ Nigeria plc.  The result sowed that there was significant difference between the laboratory produced bleach and the commercially produced bleach solution.   

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER   ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Statement of the problem

1.2 Aims and objectives

1.3 Hypothesis

1.4 Limitation of the study

1. Significance of the study

CHAPTER   TWO

2.1 BACKGROUND OF BLEACHING SOLUTION

2.2 OXIDIZING OR REDUCING BLEACHING AGENT

2.3 TYPES OF OXIDIZING BLEACHING AGENT

2.4 MECHANISM OF BLEACHING AGENT

CHAPTER   THREE

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 REAGENTS USED

3.2 APPARATUS/MATERIALS USED

3.3 METHOD OF PRODUCTION

CHAPTER   FOUR

4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 RESULTS

1. DISCUSSION

CHAPTER   FIVE

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 CONCLUSION

5.2 RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCES 

CHAPTER   ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION 

Bleaching is a process in which natural colouring matter is removed from a fiber to make it white.  This process can be extended to other uses for example, in yarn or fabrics or in pulp and paper industries where cellulose used in making paper is bleached to white.  Bleach solution can also be defined as any solution that is capable of bleaching colouring matters.  Bleach solution ranges from simple to complex types in various trade names like parazone, Jik etc.  They completely depend on the makes up of the ingredient materials.

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There has been the problem of low quality production of bleach by various producing firm in Nigeria.  This study is set to assess the production of bleach solution, self-empowerment of our young school leavers in Nigeria.

“SUB PROBLEM 1”

The purpose of this study is to produce a bleach solution that will be affordable to the common man in the society.

“SUB PROBLEM II”

The reason for this study is to produce a bleach solution that will be of high quality compared to the commercially produced ones in the market.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aims and objectives of this project is to a large extent as explained by the title – “Production of bleach solution comparatively to commercially produced bleach solution.  The research objectives are listed below:

1. To harness the available raw materials for the production of bleach solution in the country.

2. To produce quality bleach, which will be affordable to the masses comparatively to others produced and sold costly in the market.

3. To establish medium-scale industries for employment of young school leavers thus making them to become self-reliant.

1.3 HYPOTHESIS

Having stated the problems and the objectives of the study, the researchers hereby make the following tentative statement.  The following hypothesis are being considered:

Ho : Bleach produced from project will be comparable to 

commercially produced bleach sold in the market.

H1 : Bleach produced from project will not be comparable to 

commercially produced bleach sold in the market.

1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This empirical study is concerned with the strategies for producing bleach and making it to be of more quality compared to the commercially produced ones already in the market.

In pursuance of a successful completion of this research work, certain limitations posed some threats to the researchers.  Among them we have:

1. FINANCE

Finance has been the major factor in any type of project.   Lack of adequate funds to meet the rising cost of undertaking a research work was among the constraints.

2. TIME

The interval between choosing the project topic, the submission of the project and preparation for the final examinations is very infinitesimal, but these are logjam and hence the researchers were deprived of so many other activities to ensure the fulfillment of the research work.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

For sometime now, there has been great public concern over the low quality production of bleach solution.

The result of the findings will be of great importance to our society because things like domestic work in our homes.  For example, washing clothes, removing of stubborn stains, cooking, cleaning and also in killing germs will be done by the bleach solution produced.

Finally, this research work will be of immense importance to the researchers, since it is a practical requirement for the award of Ordinary National Diploma (OND) in Science Technology of the Institute of Management and Technology (IMT), Enugu.

.

PRODUCTION OF BLEACH SOLUTION AND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED BLEACH SOLUTION



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