THE EFFECT OF WORKING CONDITION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECRETARIES IN AN ORGANIZATION ( A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED ORGANIZATIONS IN CALABAR)
This study examines the effect of working condition on the performance of secretaries in an organization. A survey method of research was used for the study, secondary data were collected from books which formed the theoretical background of the study and primary data were collected through the use of questionnaire. The questionnaires were administered to 234 secretaries and executives/manages in the four selected organizations after which 200 were collected and analyzed. It is form this that conclusions were based, the summary was based on the findings and recommendations were made. Thereafter, it was discovered that good and conducive working environment leads to better performance by the secretary. And where working condition is not nor haphazardly provided, the works will be in danger while productivity suffers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii
Approval Page - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vi
List of Tables - - - - - - - - - vii
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - viii
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the problem - - - - - - 3
1.3 Purpose of the study - - - - - - - 3
1.4 Research questions - - - - - - - 4
1.5 Significance of the study - - - - - - 5
1.6 Scope / Delimitation - - - - - - - 6
1.7 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - 7
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 8
2.1 Who is a secretary? - - - - - - - 9
2.2 The role played by secretary in the organization - - 10
2.3 The importance of a secretary - - - - - 14
2.4 The meaning of working condition - - - - 16
2.5 Organization’s role in the improvement of working condition 17
2.6 Factors that enhance secretary’s productivity - - 19
2.7 Effect of working condition on secretary productivity - 22
2.8 Summary of the review of related literature - - - 24
3.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 25
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - - 25
3.2 Area of the Study - - - - - - - 25
3.3 Population of the Study - - - - - - 26
3.4 Sample size and technique - - - - - - 27
3.5 Instrument for data collection - - - - - 28
3.6 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 28
3.7 Validation of the instrument - - - - - 29
3.8 Administration of the instrument - - - - 29
3.9 Historical Background of the Organization - - - 30
DATA PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 36
4.1 Data presentation and analysis - - - - - 36
4.2 Major findings - - - - - - - - 42
4.3 Discussion of findings - - - - - - - 45
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION(S)
5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 47
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - 47
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 48
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - 49
References - - - - - - - - - 51
Appendix - - - - - - - - - 53
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1: Responses on Effect of Working Condition of the
Secretary on the Company productivity - 43
Table 4.2: Respondents rating on the effects of good working condition on the secretaries output or performance in an organization - - - - - 45
Table 4.3: Respondents rating on what way does organization provide good working condition for their secretaries 46
Table 4.4: Respondents rating on How does absence of good working condition affect Secretary’s productivity 48
1.1 Background of the Study
Any organization that wishes to succeed in achieving it aims and objectives has to maintain a good working condition so as to achieve its goals. This is so because the intrinsic and extrinsic factors the intrinsic factor is the incentives attached to one’s job that is what influences the secretary within the job, and this include achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility promotion and possibility for personal growth, while extrinsic are the environmental condition attached to one’s work element that contribute or motivated the secretary e.g. interpersonal relationship with colleagues and subordinates.
Management itself realizes that there are certain fundamental needs that must be satisfied it secretary’s due to function at their best, workers look for organization, firms, companies and institutions that offer jobs that provides satisfaction and sense of accomplishment it is in view of this background that the researchers intends to carry out this research work with the view of making employees improve their working condition as to get the best out of their employees.
Secretaries are needed in every type of office, be it advertising and public education, law and medicine, manufacturing and industries, publishing and schools, insurance and bank etc they also work for politicians, writers and judges.
It is an indisputable fact that the secretary is backbone of any organization, many achievements have been made by the management of the workforce of which the secretary is no exception.
Secretary is derived from the latin word ‘secretaries’ meaning something know to one or few and kept secret or hidden from the view or knowledge of others, simply puts, a secretary is a keeper of secrets. He / she is a person who works in an office, working for another person, dealing with letters and telephone calls, typing, keeping records, arranging meeting with people secretary cannot be efficient and effective if he / she is working under poor condition.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This research work is focused on the effect of working conditions on workers productivities, the working condition of any organization plays an important role on the workers because the productivity of an organization depends largely on them, lack of good working condition in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic factors leads to an great decline in productivity.
It is observed that many organizations are yet to realize the benefit of good working condition and consequently, this is greatly affecting their employees particularly the realization of this fact that prompted the researchers to go into a study of this nature.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general objectives of this study is to ascertain the effect of working condition on secretary’s productivity in an organization. However, the specific objectives is to:
⦁ Find out the effect of working condition on the company’s productivity
⦁ Identify the effect of good working condition on the secretary’s performance
⦁ Investigate the level of good working condition for secretaries
⦁ Find out the working condition affect strategies for improving working condition for secretaries
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions are framed in order to give solutions to the problems under study:
⦁ What are the effect of working condition on the company’s productivity
⦁ What are the effects of good working condition on the secretary’s performance
⦁ What ways do organization provide good working condition for their secretaries
⦁ What are the ways of improving working condition for secretaries
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will be of benefit to the categories of people’s
⦁ Employer’s of Secretary: This study is hoped to be of importance to employer as it would enable them have an insight of an ideal working condition necessary for higher productivity.
⦁ Secretaries: This study will be of benefit to practicing secretaries, as it would reveal the essence of good working condition thereby making them perform at their best.
⦁ Office Technology and management Studies: This write up will also be of benefit to office technology and management students in preparing them for their own research works
⦁ Future Researchers: It is hoped that future researchers would use the findings as data for future project works.
The study will be carried out in four selected organizations within Kaduna metropolis and in view of their size and popularity:
⦁ Nigeria Telecommunication Limited
⦁ National Board for Technical Education
⦁ Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company
⦁ Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, Kaduna
In carrying out a study of this nature, it is expected to cover many areas in secretarial field, but for the purpose of this study emphasis would only be placed on the following:
⦁ A secretary
⦁ Role played by secretary in an organization
⦁ The importance of a secretary
⦁ The meaning of working condition
⦁ Organizations role in the improvement of working condition
⦁ Factors that enhance secretary’s productivity
⦁ Effects of working condition on secretary’s productivity
1.7 Definition of Terms
Productivity: This is being able to produce or to be fertile
Adequate: Satisfactory or sufficient requirements
Condition: The thing that must occur if something is to exist
Extrinsic: The environmental condition attached to one’s work
Haphazardly: Without order on plan
Intrinsic: The incentive attached to one’s job
Performance: To do work or to achieve
Organization: Organized body, persons or systems
Secretary: Assistant to an executive employed to help ideal with correspondence and routine office work
Validity: State of being legal
Worker: Members of the working class
Promotion: Act of been given a higher position or rank
Executive: Person or group in a business or commercial organization with administrative or managerial power
Data: Facts, things certainly known and from which conclusions may be drawn
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter concerns the summary of the study, conclusion and recommendation based on the findings.
Relevant literature were reviewed as they relate to the topic questionnaires were distributed to the respondents, collected and analysed which form the frame work of the conclusion.
It was therefore found as follows:
Effect of working condition caused low productivity and that good and conducive working condition / environment commend job done by secretary as well as recognition of secretary’s worth as an important personnel in the organization motivate secretaries towards better performance.
It also shows that secretary’s strive for better working condition because it gives them sense of pride and belonging, it boosts their morale for better performance and it also gingers them to greater productivity.
It was discovered that organizations provide working condition for their secretaries through the following ways:
Provision of good working condition, environment enhance productivity, sending staff for training / education, adequate job security and provision of remuneration that commensurate the task performed by the secretaries.
It was believed that absences of working condition makes secretaries shirk from responsibility without showing interest in carrying out their duties and it makes them lack confidence in their superior.
Based on the findings of this study the following conclusion were drawn when good working condition are not provided by organizations it makes the secretaries ineffective which leads to low productivity.
Secretaries always strive for better working condition as to makes them have pride and sense of belonging, confidence in their job which result to greater productivity. In order for organizations to achieve their aims and objectives they have to provide intrinsic and extrinsic incentives good working condition / environment for their secretaries.
It was also shown that absence of working condition affect productivity by making secretaries shirking from responsibility, late coming and absenteeism will lead to low productivity.
Based on the findings of the study the researchers hereby make the following recommendations to improve the situation.
⦁ Despite the fact that there are equipment in the office, the organizations should purchase modern equipment to improve secretary productivity
⦁ The organizations should provide good and conducive working environment to enhance comfort ability and ease of job performance
⦁ Though there is working condition the organization should improve on them because intrinsic and extrinsic factors make secretaries feel more relaxed and productive
⦁ Secretaries should be sent for training / education but where it is impossible, there should be provision for seminars, workshops and conferences regarding their profession
⦁ Secretaries should be appreciated and recognized as an important personnel in the organization, which will boost their morale toward greater performance.