THE IMPACT OF MODERN COMMUNICATION FACILITIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECRETARIES IN NIGERIA
This project research “The Impact of Modern Communication Facilities on the performance of the Secretary in an Organization”. This becomes essential as every organization seeks to achieve set objectives or goals. This project looks at the impact of modern communication facilities on the performance of a secretary in an organization. Chapter one of this project introduces the background to the subject matter, background to the area of study with emphasis on a survey of some selected organizations in Kaduna metropolis, the scope and limitation of the study, statement of the problems, aims and objectives of the study, significance of the study, the hypothesis of the study. Chapter two contains the review of related literature. This chapter discuss the views of other authorities and it affects the topic researched. These authorities are quoted and acknowledged. Chapter three contains the methodology of data collection by the research in the course of this study. These include the population of the study, the sampling technique, research instruments used, sources of data collected and gathered, method for the test of hypothesis. Chapter four contains the presentation and analysis of data as well as the test of hypothesis. Lastly, chapter five deal with the summary, conclusion and the recommendations based on the findings of the research.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content……...…v
Introduction - - - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 2
1.3 Purpose of the Study - - - - - - - 3
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - - 4
1.5 Significance of the Study - - - - - - 5
1.6 Scope/Delimitation of Study - - - - - 5
1.7 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - 6
Review of Related Literature
2.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 8
2.1 What is Communication? - - - - - - 9
2.2 The Purpose of Communication - - - - - 9
2.3 The Process of Communication - - - - - 10
2.4 The Different Types of Modern Communication Facilities 12
2.5 Impact of Modern Communication on the Secretary - 22
2.6 Problems posed by Communication Facilities to the Secretary 24
2.7 Summary of the Review - - - - - - 25
3.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 26
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - - 26
3.2 Area of Study - - - - - - - - 27
3.3 Population of the Study - - - - - - 27
3.4 Sampling Size and Technique - - - - - 28
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - 28
3.6 Validation of Instrument/Reliability - - - - 28
3.7 Administration of Instrument - - - - - 29
3.8 Historical Background of Organization Used in the Study 29
3.9 Methods of Data Analysis - - - - - - 36
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 37
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - 37
4.2 Major Findings - - - - - - - - 47
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 50
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - 50
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 52
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - 52
5.4 Area of Further study - - - - - - - 54
Reference - - - - - - - - - 55
Questionnaire - - - - - - - - 56
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1: Responses on modern communication gadgets in the organization - - - - - - 38
Table 4.2: Respondents rating on the impact of modern communication facilities on organizational goals 40
Table 4.3: The impact of modern communication facilities on efficiency of the secretary - - - - 42
Table 4.4: Implication of modern communication facilities on secretarial profession - - - - - 44
Table 4.5: The problems posed by modern communication facilities the secretary - - - - - 46
1.1 Background of the Study
The act of Communication is the most important of all human activities. Is a fact that all human activities are interdependent on one another socially, economically, culturally and politically. No human being can live in isolation, that is to say human being must pass on and also receive information in every activities that must be done. Communication is one of the fundamental functions of the office and process which is essential to all forms of business. It is the means of conveying information from one person to another, which can be through Telephone, post office, Teleprinter, Mobile phone, Messenger services, Computer and many other means. Communication is done in order to pass or receive information, ideas and knowledge from one person to another.
During the past few decades there have been development and improvement in office communication system. This makes the work of today’s trained secretaries to be easier.
Azuka (1990), states that the word Secretary is taken from the Latin word “Secretaries”. This means that the Secretary is the ability to keep information or knowledge away from others. But in your own views a secretary is the keeper of secret.
Little (1976), defines Communication as “the process by which information is passed between individuals and organization by means of previously agree symbols such as words, fiscal grimaces, gestures, postures, pictorial or usual display etc.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Advent of modern communication facilities has spured up radical changes in the secretarial profession. These changes have been characterized by new methods of doing this, with emphasis on Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
According to Ali and Akinbi (1995), technology is an alteration in the life of an equipment, character, knowledge and method of doing things. The impact of these modern communication facilities this resulted into the acquisition of the needed competencies by secretaries, to effectively and efficiently operates these facilities in order to be relevant in the world of Labour. This is because, prior to this time, the communication facilities obtainable in the office were; Analog, Telephone, the manual typewriter, Teleprinter, Duplicating machine, reprographic machines etc.
Today Modern Communication facilities which include, computer, internet, mobile phones, fax machine, telegram etc. have replaced the persons existing ones. This had also created another impetus on the secretary, as there is an improvement in the way/she discharge his/her duties. However, the impact of modern communication gadget on the organization goals, have not been properly felt for instance the says in some organization are not still efficient even though there gadget. The problems of modern facilities seem to care a problem for instance some says it must undergo many loose of their job.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The overall purpose of this study is to examine the impact of modern communication equipment on the Secretary and the profession. However, the specific objectives of the study are:
1. To identify the modern communication gadgets is the use in organization.
2. To find out the impact of modern communication facilities on the organization goals.
3. To assess the impact of modern communication gadgets on the efficiency of the Secretary.
4. To outline the problems which modern communication facilities pose to the secretary profession.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the modern communication gadgets in use in organizations?
2. What are the impacts of modern communication gadgets on organizational goals?
3. What is the impact of modern communication gadgets on the efficiency of the Secretary?
4. What are the problems of modern communication facilities to the Secretary profession?
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that if the importance and the roles of Secretaries in the usage of modern communication equipment in communication is identified, the secretary will benefit from it, because by providing the modern facilities such as computer, mobile phone, Teleprinter, and Printing machine, photo-copy to improve its skills. Also secretarial students will benefit from this modern communication facilities.
1.6 Scope/Delimitation of Study
The essence of the research work is to find the effects of modern communication facilities on the Secretary. The research work is however, delimited to the following areas: What is communication? Identify the modern communication gadgets in use in organizations, the impact of modern communication facilities on the secretary assess. Communication gadgets on the efficiency of the Secretary and outline the problems which modern communication facilities pose to the secretarial profession.
1.7 Definition of Terms
These are definition of some words which might sound strange to the readers and which will also make the research work comprehensive and readable.
⦁ Secretary: A person employed by an organization to deal with papers and correspondence keep records and assist his/her boss in the day to day running of the organization.
⦁ Communication: The process of passing ideas, information and documents from one person, location etc. to another though usage of a specified channels.
⦁ Modern: This is the present or recent time(s) or things.
⦁ Impact: The effect or the importance.
⦁ Equipment: Tools or machinery use for specific purposes.
⦁ Secretarial: Duties of a secretary
⦁ Profession: Individual areas of specialization or occupation.
⦁ Computer: It is a machine or an electric device which accepts information from an input device, it also performs arithmetical logical operations in accordance with a pre-defined programme and fully transfer the processed data to an output device either for further processing or in final printed form like business document.
⦁ Word Processing: Getting ideas into words, words into papers and then to the final result and communications.
⦁ NCC: Network Control Center
- VDU: Visual Display Unit
- CPU: Central Processing Unit
- SCPC: Single channel perceiver
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter gives a summary of the whole study, conclusions based on the data collected and analyzed and recommendations made. The chapter ends with a suggested area for further research.
Following, the view that modern communication equipment greatly improves the performance and production output in organizations, the researcher decided to embark on a survey study to find out how true it is and also how it has affected the performance of secretaries positively and negatively.
Five research questions were raised based on the problem of study and questions were also drawn and distributed to secretaries of four (4) different organizations to know their view pertaining to the problem of study which is “The Impact of Modern Communication facilities on the Secretary”.
The researchers also reviewed related literature to find out the view of authors and writers which shows that the usage of modern communication facilities has greatly and will also greatly increase the performance of the secretary thereby creating the wide gap between the secretary of yesterday years to that of today.
From the questionnaires, which were drawn and distributed t sixty (60) secretaries from four different organizations, sixty (60) were collected back and analyzed.
Based on the analysis, it was found that most offices use these modern communication gadgets to facilitate their work, which has recorded significant improvement in customer services, better connection both within and outside the organization by reducing their workloads and bring higher profit, reduction of cost, better supervision and coordination of activities which has greatly eliminated wastages of time and energy.
Modern communication facilities have a great impact on the performance of secretaries by helping in covering their meetings, recording messages, save the use of shorthand, how it never in anywhere brought about the phasing out of the secretarial profession, redundancy of secretaries, fewer recognition secretaries and also secretaries being replaced by their equipment.
The conclusions made based on the findings from research questions and the analysis of the data are:
⦁ The modern communication facilities in use in most organization today are namely computer conferencing machine, fax, internet and Email.
⦁ The use of modern communication gadgets has enhanced secretary profession.
⦁ The Secretary needs to retain themselves before the use of the equipment.
Considering the findings and conclusions of this research work, the researchers therefore made the following recommendations to secretaries, employees, institutions that produce secretaries and anyone who is affected in one way or the other.
⦁ Organizations should employ the use of these facilities as it does not only increase the sectary’s efficiency but also boost production which is the main objective of any organization.
⦁ Secretaries should also endeavour to know more by going for training, attending workshops, seminars to get additional knowledge on how to use, maintain and operate various types of the facilities to be able to handle additional responsibilities and be effective equipments and also give the students the opportunity of knowing by lecturing them on it which will prepare them for the challenging world of new equipment wherever they are ready to work.
⦁ Organizations should provide opportunity for training for their secretaries who had or prior knowledge on the operation of these machines, for if this is done, it will bring about effectiveness and efficiency.
⦁ These modern communication facilities and how the availability of it in the organization can greatly uplift the organization aims and objectives.
5.4 Areas for Further Study
The following are related but not directly within the scope of this study and is here by suggested for further studies.
1. The importance of seminars, workshops, lectures and training on the effective utilization of modern communication facilities.
2. Creating awareness on the importance of modern communication facilities.
3. Discoveries of other modern communication facilities, and their uses and their importance in the effective management of organizational goals..