THE EFFECT OF MOTIVATION OF LABOUR, COST AND PRODUCTIVITY ON NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY


 THE EFFECT OF MOTIVATION OF LABOUR, COST AND PRODUCTIVITY ON NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY  

ABSTRACT

This study was intended to evaluate the effect of motivation of labour, cost and productivity on Nigerian construction industry. This study was guided by the following objectives; To examine the factors which motivate employees to perform in the organization, To look at various techniques of motivating people to performance in the construction industry, To ascertain the effect of motivation of labour, cost and productivity on workers in the construction industry of Nigeria, To identify the problems associated with the motivation of workers in the construction industry of Nigeria, To suggest the solutions to such problems, if any, Finally, to improve people’s knowledge in this area of organizational behaviour.

The study employed the case study design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using the simple percentage mean and chi-square (X2) statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The respondents under the study were 160 respondents of Marlum construction company Benin. 

The study findings revealed that there is a positive relationship between the quality of supervision and motivation to work; this implies that workers being conscious of the management supervisory role will put in their best to work. Many of the workers in the company are not happy with the fringe benefits, which they get from the company.

This study will educate the management of the organization (especially construction companies in Nigeria) on how to motivate their workers to productivity.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page - - - - - - - - - i

Approval Page - - - - - - - - ii

Declaration - - - - - - - - iii

Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv

Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v

Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi

Table of Contents - - - - - - - vii

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1Background of the Study-----

1.2Statement of General Problem----

1.3Objective of the Study------

1.4Research Questions------

1.5    Hypothesis   -      -      -      -      -      -      -        -        -        

1.6Significance of the Study-----

1.7Scope of the Study------

1.8Definition of Terms------

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1Conceptual framework-------

2.2Factors that motivate employees to perform in an organization--------       --

2.4Theoretical Framework------

2.4.1Douglas McGregor Theory ‘x’ and Theory ‘y’----

2.4.2 Goal - Setting Theory - - - - - - - -

2.4.3Self-determination theory-------

2.4.4The Two Factor Theory by Frederick Hertzberg----

2.4.5The E.R.G Theory by Clayton Alderfer-----

2.5Summary of Literature-------

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -

3.2 Area of study - - - - - - - -

3.3 Source of data - - - - - - - -

3.4 Research Design - - - - - - - -

3.5 Population of the study - - - - -

3.6 Sample and sampling techniques - - - - - -

3.7Description of the instrument------

3.8Validation and Reliability of the Instrument----

3.9 Method of Data Collection and Questionnaire distribution -

3.10 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - -

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -

4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - -

4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents - - - - -

4.3 Data Analysis - - - - - - - - -

4.4 Testing Hypothesis - - - - - - - -

4.5 Summary of Findings - - - - - - - -

4.6 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - -

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -

5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - -

5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - -

5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - -

References ----------

Appendix - - - - - - - - - -

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 Human resource management is of strategic importance when it comes to industries that are labour intensive like construction industry. The effective management of human resource is the key towards achieving the higher construction workforce productivity thus accomplishing the construction projects within their predefined limits. The bond between motivation and productivity is widely accepted and of high significance as well. The relationship between motivation and productivity can be summarized as that productivity is directly linked to motivation, and motivation is, in turn, dependent on productivity. Suitable motivation of labour can be hypothesized as a key contributor to maximizing workers’ productivity Kazaz et al (2008. Workers need motivation just as equipments need fuel and operators. Motivation is a process which activates productivity. In order to effectively manage the human resources and to make sure that workforce is productive enough; it is necessary to understand those factors which have edge over others for motivating the construction workforce. In this study, the potential of organizational and economic factors will be studied for motivating employees.

There were several studies which explored the relationship between motivational factors and construction workforce productivity around the globe but there was a scarcity of this work in the local environment of Nigeria. The construction industry plays an important role in the development of the economy of the country. Construction industry is an area influenced by many different factors such as labour, material, equipment and construction methods etc. Among these factors, human resources come first without which, other resources would not be utilized or transformed into productive use. Any improvement in labour productivity would contribute a great deal to the improvement of the overall productivity as identified by Hashim (1995). The motivation concept is generally defined as a composition of powers and mechanisms which help to direct human behavior in a desired manner, or with a more specific context it is described as the all convincing and encouraging actions which help workers fulfill their tasks willingly and to come closer to project objectives. Motivation of the labour force is of paramount importance because the quality of human performance at the workplace depends largely upon motivation. That is, higher motivation brings higher productivity which is suggested by Kazaz et al (2008). According to most researchers there is a positive relationship between motivation and productivity. This means that when motivation increases, a rise in productivity is also expected. This reflects the belief that an increased motivation level causes an increase in productivity. Achieving the results demands that an adequate quality of inputs is provided in this first place and improved construction workforce productivity means a better input and this it will help contractors to be more competent and profitable whilst executing their jobs.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Construction companies exist for the purpose of rendering some services. For the organization to meet its objectives, people are employed in the organization in order to help the organization meet its objectives. Thus, in order to ensure that people employed in the organization perform optimally towards the realization of organizational goals, they need to be motivated to work.

Motivating people to work entails meting their needs. There is a great controversy over the issue of motivating people. 

Some people are of the view that such extrinsic factors like money, praise, and quality of supervision and company’s policy can motivate people to work, while others are of the view that such extrinsic factors like advancement quality of the job done by person, recognition and growth can motivate workers to productivity.

It is in view of these controversies that this study wants to look at the motivation of employees in the organization by using MarlumConstruction Company as a case study; and in doing this, the following questions arise:

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.

This research work hopes to achieve the following objectives:

1. To examine the factors which motivate employees to perform in the organization

2. To look at various techniques of motivating people to performance in the construction industry

3. To ascertain the effect of motivation of labour, cost and productivity on workers in the construction industry of Nigeria.

4. To identify the problems associated with the motivation of workers in the construction industry of Nigeria.

5. To suggest the solutions to such problems, if any.

6. Finally, to improve people’s knowledge in this area of organizational behaviour.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 

It is in view of the above problems that the following questions arise:

1. What are the factors that motivate employees to perform in the construction industry of Nigeria?

2. What are the available techniques of motivating employees for higher productivity? 

3. Do motivation of labour, and cost actually steer employees productive capacity? 

4. What are the problems militating against employees motivation, and 

5. How can these problems of employees’ motivation be addressed in order to improve productivity in the construction sector of Nigeria?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses will be tested in this study:

1. Ho: The quality of supervision will not motivate workers productivity.

Hi: The quality of supervision will motivate workers productivity.

2. Ho: A worker’s perception of what obtained in his organizational will not motivate him to greater productivity. 

Hi: A worker’s perception of what obtained in his organizational will motivate him to greater productivity. 

3. Ho: A worker’s perception of organizational appraisal policy will motivate him to greater productivity.

Hi: A worker’s perception of organizational appraisal policy will not motivate him to greater productivity.

4. Ho: The worker’s satisfaction with its fringe benefits will not motivate him to greater productivity.

Hi: The worker’s satisfaction with its fringe benefits will motivate him to greater productivity.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

This study will educate the management of the organization (especially construction companies in Nigeria) on how to motivate their workers to productivity.

The findings of this study will generate people’s interest in researching into other areas of motivation in the organization will enrich the literature on motivation as a phenomenon.

Finally, the study hopes to enrich people’s knowledge in this area of organizational behaviour and management of people in the organization.

1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY 

This study is on effect of motivation of labour, cost and productivity on the construction industry of Nigeria. The study will also covers the various techniques of motivation and theories of motivation as they impact on employees productivity in an organization. 

1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms were defined as used in this study:

Productivity: Is the ratio of output or production capacity of the workers in an organization. It is the relationship between the amount of one or more inputs and the amount of outputs from a clearly identified process.

Employees: are the workers in an organization, working for the accomplishment of the organizational goals. In this study, the employees are those staffs of the organization,

Motivation: Motivation is a decision-making process, through which the individual chooses the desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to them".

Adequate Motivation:  These are factors (familiarity, concern and driving force), which exist or are provided in a work situation either physically or psychologically which determine the input and productivity level of the worker.

Intimacy:  Intimacy or Familiarity could be described as the feeling of warmth and friendliness based on interpersonal relationship among people. 

Consideration: Consideration or Concern refers to a situation where both their colleagues and managers treat staffs with understanding. In this case, there is both a personal and human touch in dealing with workers.

Morale: Moral refers to staff emotional and mental level of zeal. REFERENCES

Adonisi, M.  2005.   Antecedents of an organizational culture that fosters corporate entrepreneurship.  People Dynamics, August 2005.  Vol. 23, No. 8.p. 6.

Sulcas, P.  2007.   Are your practices producing results?  People Dynamics, June 2007.  Vol. 25, No. 6.p. 12.

VAN ROOYEN, J.  2006.  Facing barriers beyond conscious awareness.  People Dynamics, January 2006.  Vol. 24, No. 1.  p. 4-5. 

Wilkinson, A. Westerman, J. & Simmons, B. (2007) The effects of work environment on the personality-performance relationship:  an exploratory study.  Journal of Managerial Issues.Summer 2007.  Vol. 19, Issue 2.  p. 288-305, 18p.

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THE EFFECT OF MOTIVATION OF LABOUR, COST AND PRODUCTIVITY ON NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY



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