CONSEQUENCES AND EVALUATION OF THE INVOLVEMENT OF FOREIGN COMPANIES IN ROAD CONSTRICTION (KWARA STATE AS A CASE STUDY).
This project involves the “consequences evaluation of foreign on road construction in Nigeria”.
The methods used in achieving the aims of these projects are:
The visitation and interview of selected government prostates in charge of granting of major road construction contract to know why they prefer patronizing the foreign contractors to the local ones.
The interview of selected foreign companies through the printing and distribution of questionnaires to know the ways in which they run their business and factors that affect their business.
A visit to our own local (indigenous company) and consultancy firm to get to know the ways in which they execute their operation and compare it with their foreign counterparts with the view of knowing their differences and short comings.
The response of these interviews and other experts were used to establish and examine the “consequences evaluation of foreign companies on road construction industries in Nigeria.”
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of content vii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of Problem 3
1.2 Aims and Objectives 3
1.3 Justification of the Study 4
1.4 Scope of the Study 4
1.5 The study area 4
1.6 Methodology of research 5
1.7 Relevance of the study 5
2.0 Literature Review 7
2.1 Importance of Road Transportation 8
2.2 Compares between Foreign Companies and Local Contractors 9
2.3 Construction Chart for Road Scheme and Road Administration 10
2.4 Problems Faced by Local /Indigenous contractors. 12
2.5 Factors affecting foreign companies on road network in Nigeria. 15
3.0 Introduction 16
3.1 Types of data required 16
3.2 Brief evaluation of questionnaires. 17
3.3 Method of data analysis 17
3.4 Problems of data collection and limitation 18
4.1 Result analysis of questionnaire 20
4.2 Test of hypothesis 31
4.3 Effect of foreign companies on socio-economic Activities in Nigeria 34
4.4 Effect of foreign companies on security/Nigeria government. 35
5.1 Recommendation 36
5.2 Conclusion 37
APPENDIX I 39
APPENDIX II 40
APPENDIX III 42
LIST OF CHARTS
Response concerning standards stipulated by Ministries
(Federal and State) Fig. 1 21
Results based on graduate employment promotion Fi g. 2 27
Results concerning foreign companies patronizing
Prostitute on Nigeria streets Fi g. 3 30
Foreign companies in road construction are technological engineering establishment, operating in Nigeria due to their technical knowledge; they assist in road construction in Nigeria. The consequences and evaluation of foreign companies on road construction” can be seen on our environment, heath, security and socio-economic activities. These have resulted into positive and negative impacts in the society as a whole.
The discovery and application of the wheel undoubtedly gave impetus to good road construction. Crude roadways were known to have been in use in Mesopotamia about 3000Bc. The first cut-stone highway was laid along the Mediterranean.
The Romans are given credit for being the first real planning preparation of foundation soil and base and most importantly, provision for adequate drainage. Roman roads are characterized by their linearity and in popular perception by their route and since the risk of ambush in hostile territory is reduced. It was for this reason that the surface of the road was often elevated a meter or more above the local ground level to provide a clean view of the surrounding country hence the modem “highway”. Some of these early roads were of elaborate construction. For example the apian way
built southward about 3l2Bc illustrates the procedures used by the romans, first a trench was excavated to such a depth that the finished surface would be at ground level. The pavement was placed in three courses a large of small broken stones, a layout of small stones mixed with morta and firmly tamped into place, and a weaving course of massive stone blocks set and bedded in moats.
With the fall of the Roman Empire, road building becomes a last art. it was not until the eighteenth century that fresaguet developed improved construction methods that a great system of road He decreased the depth to about 10 inches by setting stone on edge, thereby reducing the labour involved and cambered or crowned the base with a wearing surface or small, hard-placed stones and spread with a shovel a top dressing of small stones, also MAC ADAM stressed the need to keep the sub-soil dry by adequate drainage and a waterproof covering chiefly that formed by small broken stoned interlocking through their inherent angularities.. Latter roads with waterproof covering of water bounds, bituminous bound or cement bound material were termed “MAC ADAM” roads.
Both TELEFORD and MAC ADAM brought principle of good engineering to road construction they advocated adequate drainage, well prepared sub-base material and uniform cross sections which lacked the excessive own of condemn portable design in the western hemisphere.
Today in Nigeria roads or pavement structure are still the largest and most patronized network presently linking village’s towns and states. With coming of foreign companies ( which have eventually taken over 75% of Nigeria roads) being the first set of people to construct aphetic roads after nigeria became a republic in 1963, Nigeria has been relying on them to construct these roads and maintain them. These foreign companies have a lot effect on our government, health security and employment etc.
The road construction industries of a developing nation like Nigeria can be classified into three categories.
1. The small scale contractor who combines one or two jobs a year with other allied works.
2. The medium sized companies run by local business men and professionals.
3. The large multinationals or foreign companies which take on the big projects ,which my research work mainly focus on.
While the first two are indigenous i.e. local contractors, the third group usually has it’s head offices in abroad with local offices. In this project emphasis is laid on the third i.e. the foreign companies. The aftermath of these foreign companies on road construction in Nigeria which includes the positive and negative effect?
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Due to the weak sub base soil of many road in our country, inspection carried out on our road surface shows that the nearly all the roads are in poor condition and this has lead to promotion of rutting or longitudinal grooves in a road surface which consequently lead to the premature failure.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aims and objectives of this project include the following.
a. To compare the organization setting of the local contractors with foreign companies with the aims of knowing the difference in their services.
b. To find out the external factors that are affecting the performance of these foreign companies.
c. To ascertain if their code of practice is really suitable for the Nigeria soil.
d. To identify the consequences of these foreign companies most especially on security and health.
e. To draw conclusions from the results so as to be able to recommend it standard to the Nigeria government.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
When most of the soil for construction work (road work) is well compacted and as well having a suitable moisture content, they possess a load bearing capacity to carry any form of load but later become unfit or unsuitable for use when the moisture content present is increased, which mostly occur in the raining season.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this project covers the consequences and evaluation of the involvement of foreign companies on road construction in Kwara state which include or involve knowing how this foreign companies carry out their operation and their shortcoming, also to compare their organizational setting with our own local indigenous contractor, and finally to know why government prefer patronizing or giving out contract on road construction to these foreign companies in Kwara state since Kwara state is the main case study.
1.5 STUDY AREA
Since the project involve foreign companies in Kwara state, ilorin which is the state capital was choosen as the main case study because part of these foreign companies have their branches here.
Ibadan oyo state was also choosen because of the relationship of this foreign companies with order multinational and local communities.
Kwara state ministry or works was also choosen, since the ministry grants contract to these companies in Kwara state. Here questionnaires will be distributed to the consultant firm in Kwara state.
1.6 METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH
The methods employed for the work undertaken includes physical survey and data collection. This was done by:
1. The interview of selected foreign companies. The companies are buletine construction company Kwara state, Reynolds construction company nig ltd, chalvet construction company, where useful information was given for the preparation of questionnaires.
2. A visit and interview of selected government establishment in charge of granting of major road construction contract to know why they prefer patronizing the foreign contractors to the local ones, here questionnaires will be distributed to these establishments for them to fill.
3. A visit to our own local (indigenous company) and some consultant firms to get to know thes ways in which they execute their operations and compare it with their foreign counterparts with the view of knowing their differences and short comings were questionnaires will also be distributed.
1.7 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
The project title is ‘Consequences and Evaluation on the involvement of Foreign Companies on Road Construction in Kwara state. This title is important because of the importance of highways and roads to the socio-economic activities, in Nigeria in particular and to the world in general.
Since we know that these foreign companies are really involved in road construction in Nigeria details of the aftermath of these companies will be elaborated by questionnaires, which will be distributed to some foreign companies and government establishment and these result will be evaluated and final conclusion will be made..