SKILL TRAINING MODULES FOR CAPACITY BUILDING OF TEACHERS AND YOUTHS IN THE FISH INDUSTRY IN SELECTED NIGER DELTA STATES, NIGERIA
The study was carried out to identify the professional and entrepreneurship skill training modules required for the capacity building of teachers and youths in the fish industry in Niger Delta States of Nigeria. Research and Development (R&D) and Survey design were used for the study. The population for the study was 4,503, 898 of the population were sampled. Proportionate stratified sampling technique was used for the sampling. Four sets of questionnaire were used to collect data for the study. Each set of the questionnaire have two categories response scale of required and performance. The required had four points rating scale of Highly Required (HR), Averagely Required (AR), Moderately Required (MR) and Not Required (NR). The performance category had four points rating scales of High Performance (HP), Average Performance (AP), Moderate Performance (MR) and No Performance (NP). The lecturers, extension agents and fish farmers responded to the required category, while the teacher of agricultural science and the youths responded to the required and performance category. Five experts validated the questionnaire, two from the department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria. Nsukka, and 3 from the fish industry. Cronbach alpha was used in determining the internal consistency of the instrument. This yielded reliability coefficient of 0.84, 0.79, 0.81 and 0.80 respectively for the four sets of questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using weighted mean, standard deviation and improvement need index (INI) to answer the research question, while t-test statistic and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) were used in testing the hypothesis at probability of 0.05. The improvement need index was used in determining the capacity building needs of teachers’ and youths. The findings of the study revealed that 3 skill modules with their 29 skill clusters were require in instruction, 6 entrepreneurship skill modules with their 64 skill clusters were required for breeding and hatching. 6 skill modules with their 74 skill clusters were required for pond construction and management,
7 skill modules with their 74 skill clusters were required for fish preservation and
marketing. Teachers of agricultural science required capacity building in 23 skill clusters in instruction; 41 skill clusters in breeding and hatching; 47 skill clusters in pond construction and management; 52 skill clusters in fish preservation and marketing. Youths required capacity building in 37 skill clustered in breeding and hatching; 49 skill clusters in pond construction and management; 39 skill clusters in fish preservation and marketing. There was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the lecturers of agricultural education and teachers of agricultural science on 22 out of 29 skill clusters in instruction in fish farming. There was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of the teachers of agricultural science, extension agents and fish farmers on 22 out of 64 clusters in breeding and hatching; 60 out of 74 skill clusters in pond construction and management; 51 out of 74 skill clusters in fish preservation and marketing. It was recommended that Niger Delta Development Commission integrate the identified and packaged programme in the study into their skill acquisition centres in the Niger delta states for capacity building of youths in fish farming enterprises.
Background of the Study
Fish consumption in Niger Delta States of Nigeria has been increasing with the increase in human population. However observation has shown that only few youths are interested in engaging in fish farming as an occupation.
Fish farming is defined by Swift (2007) as the rearing of fish in man-made ponds or lakes. He stated that fish farming has been in practice for many years using ponds and fenced-off enclosure of rivers to rear fish and that fish farming offers an alternative solution to the increasing demands for fish and fish products. Omoruyi, Orhue, Akerobo and Aghiemen (1999) explained fish farming as the rearing of fish and other aquatic animals such as crabs, shrimps, lobster, prawn and periwinkles in a body of water. The body of water could be pond, tank or cages. In the context of this study, fish farming include all activities that the fish farmers (those practicing fish farming) carry out from pond construction to marketing of fish.
Fish is of value to people of Niger Delta states and beyond. Fish supplies people with food nutrient such as protein and it is of economic importance because it is sold to generate money that is used by the farmer to meet their needs. Fish could also be used to improve the protein content of animal feeds. These values are made possible through the activities of artisan fishermen (those involved in harvest of fish in natural water) in Niger Delta states. These fishermen have marginal entrepreneurship skills as they are mainly involved in capture fishery, which is the harvest of fish in high seas with boats and could not practice the domestication of fish.
Entrepreneurship is defined by Adetokunbo (1997) as the willingness and ability of individual to seek out investment opportunities and to establish and run an enterprise successfully based on identified opportunities. Uduma (2004) defined entrepreneurship as the process by which an individual combine human and material resources in order to provide goods and services desired by man. In this study entrepreneurship is the combination of human and material resources efficiently by fish farmers in fish farming in order to produce fish to generate wealth for their economic survival and that of their family and be able to run a fish enterprise.
A farm enterprise according to Enome (2003) is any farm activity (or identifiable sector of the farm business) for which there are specific returns. A fish enterprise is an occupational area in fish farming comprising many activities that a learner is required to perform before he can become gainfully employed within the fish industry. The several areas of fish farming where learners can seek out and run enterprises successfully in the fish industry include: breeding and hatching, pond construction and management and fish preservation and marketing.
Fish breeding and hatching entails the art and science of propagating fish with the purpose of improving its inherent qualities desired by man in order to make profit, safeguard endangered species and reproduce fish that were previously unavailable to farm. The activities involved in breeding and hatching constitutes an enterprise in this study.
Fish pond construction and management involves construction of the pond, stocking of pond with fingerlings and managing them until maturity. All the activities involved in pond construction and management constitute an enterprise with reference to this study. Fish preservation and marketing enterprise involves harvesting of fish and preserving them through different methods that could keep their quality for high market value in the fish industry.
Industry is defined by Hornby (2004) as the people and activities involved in producing a particular thing or providing a particular service. In the context of this study, an industry is viewed as all the enterprises and their relevant skills in fish farming through which people can practice and make sustainable living. Those involved in the enterprises are fish breeders, pond managers and fish preservers and marketers respectively. These groups of fish farmers are being attended to by extension agents. Extension agents in the view of Iwena (2008) are persons involved in the dissemination of new idea and techniques from research institutes to
the farmers. They act as intermediary between research institutes and the farmers. To function well in the fish industry, there should be effective skill training for those to be involved in any of the enterprises.
Skill is explained by Osinem and Nwoji (2005) as the ability to perform an activity expertly. They further added that skill is a well established habit of doing things and involves the acquisition of performance capability through repetitive performance of an operation. Okorie (2000) in his view explained skill as a well established habit of doing something and involves the acquisition of performance capability. Skill in the context of this study involves elements or activities that make up an enterprise. For somebody to be skilled in an enterprise he must be trained.
Training according to Banzhaf, Nordin, Keller and Francone (1998) is the acquisition of knowledge and skills by the learner through the process of teaching and learning under the guidance of a professional teacher. McNamara (2007) explained training as involving an expert working with learners to transfer to them certain areas of skills to enable them improve in their current job.
Skill training, in the view of Olaitan, Nwachukwu, Igbo, Onyemachi and Ekong (1999) is a situation where learners are exposed by the professional teacher to the process of acquiring manipulative skills without the necessary theories, knowledge and technical information required in the occupation. Ajala (2000) viewed skill training as the exposure given to an employee or learner by an instructor or teacher to make him perform more expertly on his job by using his knowledge effectively and readily in the execution of his performance. Skill training in the context of this study is the method adopted by teachers to make youths acquire the relevant skills through instruction that will enable them practice in any of the occupations in fish farming. Skill training can only be organized successfully by a professional teacher.
A professional in the opinion of Onwueme (2001) is someone who is an expert in his special area of knowledge and has good foundation in pre-services training and a continuous update of knowledge and skill through relevant improvement programme. Mgbodile (2004) stated that a professional is someone
who works in a job that needs special education or training. The author further stated that a professional is expected to exhibit some skills and certain standards of behaviour (professional skill). Professional skills in the context of this study are those special skills acquired by teachers in the area of pedagogy and subject matter such as fish farming to enable them impart knowledge and skills in fish farming enterprises which require continuous update. Biehler and Snowman (1990) in their view described the teacher as someone who helps the students to develop a positive self concept and can be regarded as a facilitator, encourager, helper, assister, colleague and friend of the students. The study further listed the characteristics of a good teacher to include: being well-informed about their subject, sensitive to the feeling of students and colleagues, believe that students can learn, have a positive self- concept, believe in helping all students do their best and use different methods of instruction successfully.
The duty of a teacher is to manage both human and material resources. Human resources are the students they teach and the material resources are those material inputs required for training both the teacher and the learners. Walker (2000) in his opinion stated that the teacher’s responsibilities include: planning school instruction, organizing instructional resources, implementing instruction, managing practical in agriculture and evaluating instructions. He further stated that teachers help in maintaining student-teacher relationship, student-community relationship, and guide students in vocational and occupational choice.
A teacher of Agriculture according to Olaitan and Mama (2001) is the vehicle for successful agricultural development in the school. He has the sole responsibility of imparting knowledge and skills to the students in agriculture. He equally lays the foundation for future skills development of students in agriculture. In Niger Delta States, various State Governments and the Niger Delta Development Commission (N.D.D.C) have established skill acquisition or training centers to empower youths with skills in fish farming for sustainable living in their environment. Fish farming is mostly favoured by skill acquisition centers in riverine and aquatic environments in Niger Delta states for equipping youths with skills in fish farming enterprises.
Teachers were recruited to teach in these centers, visit to the centers (Songhai Farm; Amukpe and Skill Acquisition Centre, Obinomba) by the researcher revealed that some of these teachers either have no professional training or those with professional training are not skilled in fish farming. A teacher in the context of this study is an individual that had been professionally trained in the act of teaching and either lecturing in the university or college of education or teaching agricultural science in secondary schools. As a lecturer, he must have a minimum of Masters degree in agricultural education, while as a teacher in secondary school, he must have a minimum of Bachelors of Science degree in agriculture or agricultural education, in order to teach the students (youths)
Youths in the view of Sowande and Olaitan (2000) are the most vulnerable individual in the society, especially in terms of means of livelihood. The authors listed some characteristics of youths that could be exploited for skill acquisition to include: having less fear of failure, stronger and generally healthier than the aged, less conservative and ready to welcome innovation faster than adults, having sound memory and very conscious of their personal, occupational and community development. They advocated for training in agriculture and technology as a means of minimizing poverty among youths.
According to United Nation General Assembly report (1995), youths are young people of 15-24 years bracket; this age range may go up to 30years in developing country like Nigeria. Youths in the context of this study are unemployed senior secondary school graduates, some of who possess rudimentary skill in fish farming, which are grossly inadequate for establishing them successfully in the fish industry. These youths therefore require capacity building in order to be successful in the fish industry, while the teachers require some capacity building in professional and technical aspect of fish farming to enable them empower youths through instruction with demand driven skills in fish farming.
Capacity building is defined by Harrington (1991) as improving a process to make it more effective, efficient and adaptive, he also explained capacity building as the updating of the initial or originally acquired knowledge and skills to enable an individual perform better than he used to be. Abdullahi and Ajoku (2001)
explained capacity building as a concept that is concerned with creating or enhancing the ability of a society to perform specific tasks and attain national development objectives. Furthermore capacity building is the process of developing and strengthening the skills, instructions, abilities, processes and resources that organization and communities need to survive, adapt and thrive in the fast changing world.
In the context of the study, capacity building is the upgrading of the abilities of the teachers professionally and technically in the fish farming enterprise, to enable them impart knowledge and skills to youths. It is also the improvement of rudimentary skills of youths in fish farming to enable them perform effectively in fish farming enterprises. In building the capacity of teachers and youths, the learning component should be arranged in modules. Module in the opinion of Oristian (2007) is an organized package of information that includes elements such as objectives, contents, assignment or activities and assessment. The author further stated that a typical learning module is designed to enable students move through the content linearly.
A module in the view of Olaitan (2003) is a unit of curriculum based on the development of entry level competencies of students. The author stated that in a modular design, the students and their occupational goals form the basis for programme planning. With the modular approach, the total curriculum of a particular field is divided into units referred to as modules. The modules the author further stated are of equal length that will take approximately specific hours of instructional time to achieve by the average group of students. A module in this study is a unit of instruction with a cluster of skills in an aspect of fish farming needed by the youths for improvement in fish farming, the module for capacity building of teachers is a unit of instruction required by the teachers for their capacity building to impart fish farming skills to the students.
In the Niger Delta states, fish production is a prominent occupation in the hands of artisan farmers that use boat, net and trap to catch fish for their family and little for market. The fishing environment is the fresh water in the high sea and this makes fishing fearful, tedious and hazardous. Some lands in the fishing
environment are severely flooded in the rainy season which restricted fishing in this area only to dry season, hence many fishermen are very poor and out of job during rainy season. The youths in this area resent the farming system (fishing in high sea) of their parents and could not practice modern fish farming, due to the education they received in school that could not equip them for occupation in fish farming. In effect, the problem of scarcity of fish lingers in the area, while the youths are unemployed. These unemployed youths engaged themselves in militancy (aggressive defense of their right by engaging in warfare) and hostage taking practice as means of earning a living.
With government decision to solve the problem of youth’s unemployment and militancy in Niger Delta States, the success will require aggressive retraining of youths in fish farming enterprises in the environment in order to empower them for future and sustainable living. The facilities for training these youths must also be made available including training programme and professional teachers. Therefore, skillful men and better fishing environment is required for the growth of the fish industry and employment of youths in the area.
The objectives of the Niger Delta Development Commission (N.D.D.C) and state governments to provide employment for youths in the fish industry could not be achieved because of scarcity of competent teachers with fish farming skills that could train youths efficiently at the skill acquisition centers. The short duration of workshop and seminars in fish farming organized by the NDDC and state governments could not solve the problem either because they appear too expensive for the youths as they are organized at commercial towns and cities. Therefore the youths in the riverine and aquatic area find it extremely cumbersome to leave their rural environment for urban town and cities to receive training in fish farming in hotels without financial support either from government or organizers of training.
To help the government and N.D.D.C achieve their objectives, it becomes necessary to conduct this study on the identification of the professional and entrepreneurship skill training modules required for capacity building of teachers and youths in the fish industry adaptable to the fishing environment of the youths in the Niger Delta states of Nigeria.
Statement of the Problem
Aged men, women and very few youths are engaged in fishing in the fresh water of Niger Delta States. Their catch can only serve them for food with little for the local market thereby making them live a peasant life. The fishing environment is fearful and hazardous as it is always flooded in the rainy season and this has restricted fishing in the area to dry season.
The demand for fish is increasing in the Niger Delta States with increasing population, but the production of fish is not able to meet the demand as the fishermen are only involved in harvesting of fish in the fresh water, in which its’ regular availability is not assured. This trial and error method of fishing cannot meet the demand for fish and so they need domestication of fish to be able to meet demand
Based on the inability of the fishermen to practice domestication of fish, the state governments established skill acquisition centers to train youths in various occupational areas including fish farming. At the centers, youths were only given rudimentary training that could not make them efficient in practicing fish farming. Hence they join militant organization for quick money as alternative to skill acquisition. The militant organization devised various strategies to extort money from oil firms and individuals. Though the youths get the money for their maintenance and could continue as such, but this appears to be an unethical and not peaceful means of survival in a peace loving and democratic country like Nigeria.
In the light of the above, the Federal Government directed the Niger Delta Development Commission N.D.D.C to develop training programmes for empowering the youths for lifelong occupation including fish farming. The commission took the directive seriously by organizing short workshops and training programmes to empower these youths in fish farming. Most of these training programmes were located in urban cities which fail to meet the requirement of the youths in the riverine areas. The youths find it difficult to adapt to the conditions in the centers hence they prefer their hostage taking through their gangs for survival.
Another major problem was the scarcity of competent teachers who could teach these youths to adapt to their local environment. The few teachers that were attracted by N.D.D.C in periodic teaching for training these youths, were recruited from the urban environment with their limitation in fish farming hence the N.D.D.C project was not quite effective.
If the professional skills are identified and packaged into programmes for improving the competence of teachers in these centers, it will improve their capacity and make them more proficient in imparting knowledge and skills in technical area of fish farming. This will most likely place the youths on profitable occupation in the fish industry and reduce youth militancy. Also if the entrepreneurship skill training modules are identified, package and used for producing programme for training youths, it could improve their capacity in fish farming. This can sustain their zeal and interest in the various occupational area of the fish industry. It can further help to make fish available enough as food for the people in the area and improve the economy hence the study
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study was to identify and package the professional and entrepreneurship skill training modules required for capacity building of teachers and youths in the fish industry in the Niger Delta States.
Specifically the study sought to identify the:
1. Skill modules in instruction required by teachers for effective teaching of youths for entrepreneurship in the fish industry
2. Skill modules in fish farming enterprises required by teachers for effective teaching of youths for entrepreneurship in the fish industry
3. professional skill modules in instruction where teachers required capacity building for effective teaching of youths for employment in the fish industry The study also sought to identify the entrepreneurship skill modules in fish:
4. breeding and hatching enterprise where teachers required capacity building for effective teaching of youths for employment in the fish industry.
5. pond construction and management enterprise where teachers required capacity building for effective teaching of youths for employment in the fish industry
6. preservation and marketing enterprise where teachers required capacity building for effective teaching of youths for employment in the fish industry
7. breeding and hatching enterprise where youths required capacity building for economic success in the fish industry.
8. pond construction and management enterprise where youths required capacity building for economic success in the fish industry.
9. preservation and marketing enterprise where youths required capacity building for economic success in the fish industry,
The study sought to:
10. packaged the identified professional and entrepreneurship skill modules in fish farming enterprise into programmes for capacity building of teachers for effective teaching in fish farming and youths for economic success in the fish industry
Significance of the study
The finding of the study is of benefits to the government of Niger Delta States, teachers of agricultural science, entrepreneurs and youths in fish farming. The study provided information to the government of Niger Delta States on the entrepreneurship skill training modules required for the capacity building of teachers and youths in fish farming. The government could direct the management of N.D.D.C. and skill acquisition centers to integrate the identified fish farming skills into their programmes. This could also provide training for youths for the purpose of economic success in fish farming enterprises thus reducing militancy in Niger delta states.
The study provided information to teachers of agricultural science on the professional and entrepreneurship skill training modules required by them for their capacity building for effective teaching of youths in fish farming enterprises. This information could be used by them to seek retraining in any fish farming enterprise and to train youths in fish farming.
The study provided information to entrepreneurs on skills in breeding and hatching, pond construction and management and fish preservation and marketing. The information could be used to select qualified staff seeking for jobs in fish farming enterprise.
The study provided information to youths, about existing fish farming enterprises in breeding and hatching, pond construction and management, fish preservation and marketing. They can make choice in any fish farming enterprise and seek for retraining in skill acquisition centers in the Niger delta states.
The study was guided by the following research questions
1. What are the professional skill modules in instruction required by teachers for effective teaching of youths for employment?
2. What are the entrepreneurial skill modules in fish farming enterprises required by teachers for effective teaching of youths for employment?
3. What are the professional skill modules in instruction where teachers required capacity building for effective teaching of youths for employment? What are the entrepreneurship skill modules in fish:
4. breeding and hatching enterprise where teachers require capacity building for effective teaching of youths for employment?
5. pond construction and management enterprise where teachers required capacity building for effective teaching of youths for employment?
6. preservation and marketing enterprise where teachers require capacity building for effective teaching of youths for employment in fish industry?
7. breeding and hatching enterprise where youths require capacity building for economic success?
8. pond construction and management enterprise where youths require capacity building for economic success?
9. preservation and marketing enterprise where youths require capacity building for economic success?
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the lecturers in agricultural education and teachers of agricultural science on the professional skill modules in instruction required by teachers for effective teaching of youths for entrepreneurship in the fish industry.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the teachers of agricultural science, extension agents and fish breeders on the skill modules in breeding and hatching required by teachers for effective teaching of youths for entrepreneurship in the fish industry.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the teachers of agricultural science, extension agents and pond managers on the skill modules in pond construction and management required by teachers for effective teaching of youths for entrepreneurship in the fish industry. .
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the teachers of agricultural science, extension agents and fish preservers and marketers on the skill modules required by teachers for effective teaching of youths for entrepreneurship in the fish industry.
Scope of the Study
The study was restricted to identification and packaging of professional and entrepreneurship skill training modules in fish farming enterprises required for capacity building needs of youths for self employment in fish farming industry and teachers for effective teaching in fish enterprises. These include breeding and hatching, pond construction and management, preservation and marketing as well as the materials needed for training youths for employment in the fish industry. The collection of data was restricted to use of questionnaire to obtain information from respondents. Only riverine areas of states in Niger delta where fishing is a predominant occupation were involved in this study..