EFFECT OF DEMONSTRATION AND PROJECTION METHODS OF TEACHING ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND INTEREST IN SOME GRAPH RELATED CONCEPTS IN ECONOMICS


EFFECT OF DEMONSTRATION AND PROJECTION METHODS OF TEACHING ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND INTEREST IN SOME GRAPH RELATED CONCEPTS IN ECONOMICS  

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of the study was to determine the effect of demonstration and project method of teaching on students’ achievement and interest in some graph related concepts in Economics. The problem that necessitated the study is students’ low achievement in Economics as reported by research. The review of literature was carried out under three broad headings namely conceptual framework, theoretical framework and empirical studies. The study adopted quasi-experimental design - a non-equivalent control group design. The population of the study comprised of all SS II students in Ikeduru local Government area in Imo state. The researcher sampled two intact classes out of which one was taught using demonstration teaching method while the other class was taught using project method. Two instruments were used for data collection namely; Economics Achievement test (EAT) and Economics graph interest scale (EGIS) and were developed by the researcher. EAT was subjected to face and content validation by One person from Department of Social Science Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka, two persons from Department of Economics Education, AlvanIkoku Federal college of Education Owerri. Three Measurement and Evaluation experts in Department of Science Education, university of Nigeria, Nsukka validated the Economics graph Interest Scale instrument.The reliability of these instruments was established using Kendel coefficient of concordance for EAT and Cronbach’s Alpha for EGIS. The reliability indices were found to be 0.97 for EAT and

0.85 for EGIS. Mean and standard deviation were used to provide answers for the research questions while analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The result of the study, among others showed that project teaching method increases students’ interest and achievement in graph related concepts in Economics. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher, among others recommended that Economic teachers should endeavour to develop and adopt the use of project method as it would enhance overall interest and achievement in economics as well as help reduce gender gap in the subject.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i

Certification ii

Approval Page iii Dedication iv

Acknowledgement Table of Contents List of Tables

Abstract v vii xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 8

Purpose of the Study 9

Significance of the Study 9

Scope of the Study 10

Research Question 10

Research Hypotheses 11

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 12

Conceptual Frame Work 13

Concept of Economics 13

Concept of Academic Achievement 15

Concept of Interest in Economics 17

Concept Graph in Economics Learning 19

Methods of Teaching Economics 21

Theoretical Framework 28

Cognitive Load theory 28

Ausubel theory of Learning 30

Review of Related Empirical studies 32

Graphs and Students’ achievement in Economics 32

Effectof Demonstration and Project Method on students’ Achievement 36

Influence of Gender on Students’ achievement in Economics 38

Influence of gender on Students’ Interest in Economics 39

Summary of Literature review 39

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD 42

Design of the Study 42

Area of the Study 42

Population of the Study 43

Sample and Sampling Technique 43

Instrument for data collection 43

Validation of the Instrument 44

Reliability of the Instrument 44

Experimental Procedure 45

Pre-testing 45

Treatment 46

Post-testing 46

Method of Data Analysis 46

CHAPTER FOUR: Result 47

Summary of Finding 57

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, IMPLICATION,

RECOMMENDATION, LIMITATIONS, SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER

STUDY AND CONCLUSION

Discussion of Findings 59

The effect of demonstration and project method of teaching on students’ Achievement in graph related concepts in Economics. 59

The effect of demonstration and project method of teaching on students’ interest in graph related concepts in Economics. 60

The influence of gender on students’ achievement in Graph related concepts in Economics.  61

The influence of gender on students’ interest in Graph related concepts in Economics. 62

The interaction effect of method and gender on students’ achievement and interest in graph related concepts in economics. 62

Conclusion 63

Educational Implications of the Study 64

Recommendations 64

Limitations of the study 65

Suggestions for further research 65

Summary of the study 65

REFERENCES 68

APPENDICES 73

Appendix A: Name of schools sampled for the study 73

Appendix B:Economics Achievement Test74

Appendix C:Marking Guide 76

Appendix D: Economics Graph Interest Scale 82

Appendix E: Request letter for Face Validation 84

Appendix F: Kendell’s Reliability coefficient 85

Appendix G: Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Coefficient 86

Appendix H: Name of Public Schools87

Appendix I: Lesson Plan 88

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Mean and Standard deviation of pre-test and post-test mean achievement scores of students exposed to demonstration and project method of teaching in

graph related concepts in Economics. 47

Table 2: Mean and Standard deviation of pre-test and post-test mean interest scores of students exposed to demonstration and project method of

teaching in graph related concepts in Economics. 48

Table 3: Mean and Standard deviation of pre-test and post-test of the influence of gender on the mean achievement scores of students in graph related

concepts in Economics 49

Table 4: Mean and Standard deviation of pre-test and post-test of the influence of gender on the mean interest scores of students in graph related

concepts in Economics 49

Table 5: Mean and Standard deviation of pre-test and post-test scores of the interaction effect of method and gender on students’ achievement in graph related concepts in economics 50

Table 6: Mean and Standard deviation of pre-test and post-test scores of the

interaction effect of method and gender on students’ interest in graph

related concepts in economics 52

Table 7: Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) of the mean achievement scores of the students exposed to demonstration and project method

of teaching in graph related concepts in Economics. 53

Table 8: Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) of the mean interest scores

of the students exposed to demonstration and project method of teaching

in graph related concepts in Economics. 54

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

Background of study

Economics is one of the elective subjects studied at senior secondary school level as prescribed by the National Policy of Education. It is a subject that contributes to making citizens functional in the society. The Nigerian Educational Research and Development Centre, (NERDC 2008) opined that the curriculum is based on the principle of equipping senior secondary school graduates with basic knowledge and skills to appreciate the nature of economic problems in any society and adequately prepare them for the changes in the Nigeria economy.

Economics in the words of Yusuf (2013) was introduced into the secondary school curriculum in Nigeria in 1966, much later than most other secondary school subjects. Ever since Economics was introduced as a school subject, the number of schools that offer the subject as well as the number of candidates that register the subject in the West African Examination Council (WAEC) SSCE exams have witnessed a phenomenal increase owing to its importance to human existence. In that regard Economics has been regarded as an important subject in the secondary schools in the sense that it helps humans to be very functional in the society and creates rationality among human beings. Yusuf (2013) opined that Economics is concerned with human behaviour such as how people earn their living and make choice between alternatives, to satisfy their wants. It also focuses on the study of firms and the government whose activities are geared towards the production of goods and services for the satisfaction of human wants. Adu (2002) expressed that the study of

1

Economics serves a useful purpose in modern life. Akunya (2006) expressed that the inclusion of Economics in the curriculum is to make the student of Economics to be increasingly aware and understand economic activities in the society as well as international sphere. Akunya added that Economics helps a student to develop analytical mind, critical thinking, make judicious allocation of resources and other executive purposes.

Based on the foregoing, it has become imperative that students of Economics should be well grounded in the subject so as to make good decisions in their daily Economic activities. In that case students’ achievement in the subject should be given serious consideration. However, educational achievement may be defined as the mastering of major concepts and principles, important facts and propositions, skills, strategic knowledge and integration of knowledge (Niemi, 1999). Academic achievement as stated by Wikipedia encyclopaedia is the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic achievement is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment. In this regard, students’ achievement in previous results of the West African Senior School Certificate Examination have shown achievement on graph related questions to be on the low side. Lending support to this, The Nov/Dec 2011 and May/June 2012 West African Examination Council (WAEC) Chief Examiners’ report, reported that quite a good number of candidates showed great deficiency in the application of graphical representations to economic analysis. As such this weakness resulted in poor achievement in questions where such analyses were required. With respect to that, some content areas have to be given special consideration in the

teaching and learning of the subject so as to help improve the achievement and interest of the students. Such content areas are those that deal with graphical representation and illustrations like Theory of Demand, theory of Supply, Market Structure, Utility and Cost Theory etc. These content areas should be given serious consideration because these concepts have link with virtually every other topic in Economics. In this respect, it is obvious that for a student to claim that he or she knows Economics the student should be able to understand and interpret graphical illustration very well. In support of this, Benedict & Hoag (2012) opined that at principle level, graph seems to be important, but if a student is not capable of understanding graphs, then subsequent success in one’s Economics class is less likely. But one irony that has been existing over a period now is the rate of failure and poor interest often observed with students’ of Economics in graph related concepts.

Furthermore, Interest according to Michelson (2013) is the most important motivational factor in learning and development. Michelsenopined that Interest is conceptualized as a relational construct between a person and an object. An interest represents a more or less enduring specific relationship between a person and an object of interest in her or his life-space. In recent times high rate of failure and low interest has been observed in graph related questions in the Senior School Certificate Examinations. Candidates tend to shy away from graph related questions and those who attempt these questions had often performed poorly. Lending support to this, the West African Examination Council (WAEC) examiners have often complained of the poor interest and achievement on graphical analysis and illustrations related to questions in Economics. The West African Examination Council (WAEC) Chief

Examiner report, of Nov/Dec 2009, May/June 2010, Nov /Dec. 2010, May/June 2011, Nov/Dec. 2011, May/June 2012 and Nov/Dec. 2012 reported that candidates exhibited poor knowledge of drawing graphs and inability to interpret graphs. The Examiners’ report further expressed that candidates showed great deficiency in the application of graphical representation to Economic analysis where required. In that case the weaknesses resulted in loss of vital marks and poor achievement in questions where such analyses were required. The reports equally stated that students showed more preference to question unrelated to graphical analysis and illustrations. This trend is seen more when questions are set from topics like Theory of demand, Theory of supply, Market structure, Utility and Cost theory.

Although efforts have been made by teachers to simplify teaching and learning of graph related concepts in Economics like; developing and improvising instructional materials in senior secondary schools yet it appears as if students’ interest is on the low side. This trend may be attributed to students’ seeing Economics as difficult, uninteresting and confusing due to the involvement of graphs in some concepts. In the same vein, this may result to poor interest in the subject Economics. Lending support to this, Bagheri and Tolin identified that interest in the course Economics is a significant factor contributing to learning as measured by grades in introductory Economics class. More so, this suggests relevance of carrying out this study to ascertain which teaching method could captured students’ interest in graph related concepts in Economics

However looking at this reoccurring trend, one could ask what is responsible for this situation. Could it be that teachers are not using the appropriate teaching

methods and techniques in teaching these graph related concepts in Economics? This question may sound rhetoric but a study on the methods of teaching that would help students learn more would not be out of place. Looking at this impending problem in graph related concepts in Economics, it seems that effort put by teachers in the use of demonstration method is not improving students’ achievement and interest in the subject over the years. Therefore, the need to involve another teaching method in the course of teaching and learning of graph related concepts to ascertain its effect on students’ achievement and interest in these areas. In this respect it is imperative to introduce Project method of teaching and ascertain its efficacy as against the demonstration method in solving the problem at hand.

Furthermore, Project method of teaching is a method which assumes that students find interest, derives enjoyment, and learn best by doing a piece of work. According to Akunya (2006), it is a method that enables the students in a class to be usefully active throughout the whole lesson period. By being involved in carrying out the activity, the student is at the same time learning the skill. Project method could be physical or mental, it is a means to learning not as an end in itself. Project method permits work in a classroom to be carried out in a friendly manner with the teacher as the motivating spirit and the students gladly do most of the work. In this respect, Biajone (2006) is of the view that project method seems to have the components to motivate teacher and students to develop cooperative work mainly aiming at the students to perceive and understand all the necessary stages required to arrive at logical conclusion.

In lending support to this, Adekoya and Olatoye (2010) in their study on effect of project based and lecture methods of teaching on students achievement in Agricultural science, found out that project method of teaching brought about more significant change in academic achievement of students in agricultural science. Project method is a teaching method that may improve learning, surmount the problem of poor achievement and interest in graph related concepts in Economics, as it gives students the opportunity to participate actively in the teaching and learning process. The nature of Economics as a subject demands that it should be activity oriented and child centred and should be taught as such for students to achieve highly. This is supported by Nigerian Educational and Research Development Council (2004) which states that educational activities shall be centred on the learner for maximum self- development and self-fulfilment. When Economics teaching in learner-oriented, learners become actively involved and do not lose interest and develop fear for the subject. For the national educational goals on Economics to be achieved, there must  be great effort at improving the teaching and learning of Economics.

On the other hand demonstration method of teaching involves the teacher being at the head of teaching and learning and as such teacher oriented. According to Akunya (2006), demonstration is a method in Economics that allows the teacher to demonstrate how variables and values are put together and are used to form a diagram and plot graphs. In this case the students watch and take down notes while the teacher carries out the demonstration and explanation.

Moreover, students’ poor achievement and interest in graph related concepts in Economics may not only be affected by the teaching methods used but also may be

influenced by students’ gender. Gender refers to socially or culturally constructed characteristics, qualities, behaviours and roles which different societies ascribe to females and male (Onah 2008). This involves all the characteristics of men and women which nature has determined and assigned to each sex. Some studies on gender and achievement have indicated that male perform better than female in science and mathematics related tasks. Lending support to this the Education Audio Visual and Culture Executives’ Agency (2006), observed that male students perform better than female students in quantitative subjects and girls tend to have weaker self concept in sciences than male mostly in mathematics related subjects. Harbor-Peters (2001), found out that male students perform better than female students in mathematics. The fact that graph is quantitative, poor achievement of female student in quantitative subjects may as well be transferred to Economics considering the gender factor. According to Jensen and Owen (2012) other suspected reason for the gender gap in Economics classes is low interest in quantitative topics. Abdu-Raheem (2010) found that there is no significant difference between the performance of male and female student is social sciences except in Economics. In support of this, Ferber, Feiner and Roberts as cited in Jensen and Owen, (2012) opined that female undergraduates are less likely to take an introductory Economics class, less likely to continue in Economics after completing first introductory course, and less likely to major in Economics than male undergraduates. Bagheri and Tolin (2009) identified that interest in the course Economics is a significant factor contributing to learning and success as measured by grades in introductory economics classes. There is Therefore the need to explore other methods of teaching which would that help

improve the interest and achievement of students in graph related content areas in Economics. Hence the need for the study ‘effect of demonstration and project method of teaching on students’ achievement and interest in some graph related concepts in economics’.

Statement of the Problem

There is the general view among students that Economics is difficult, particular reference to the graphical analysis and illustration associated with some concepts. More often than not students show more preference and interest on questions and concepts that have no graph analysis and illustration. In Senior Secondary School Certificate examinations, students who tend to attempt graphical related questions have often shown poor achievement. This situation is more obvious when such questions are made compulsory. Consequently, this situation has  contributed adversely to poor achievements recorded in the subject over the years going by the WAEC Chief examiner’s reports of previous years. In this regards, doubt is raised on the efficacy of the teaching methods utilized by teachers in our schools in teaching graph related concepts. The usual demonstration method that is adopted by many teachers which appears not to be student centred may be attributed to be the cause of this poor achievement in Economics mostly on graph related content areas. It is therefore imperative to carry out this study in Economics teaching and learning using project and demonstration method to ascertain which of the two methods would improve the problem of poor achievement and interest in graph related contents in Economics. In this regard the problem of this study posed as a question is: what is the

effect of demonstration and project teaching methods on students’ achievement and interest in some graph related concepts in Economics?

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to determine the effect of demonstration and project method of teaching on students’ achievement and interest in some graph related concepts in Economics. Specifically, the study is determined the;

1. Mean achievement scores of students exposed to demonstration and project methods of teaching in graph related concepts in Economics

2. Mean interest scores of students exposed to demonstration and project method of teaching in graph related concepts Economics

3. Influence of gender on students’ achievement in graph related concepts in Economics

4 Influence of gender on students’ interest in graph related concepts in Economics

5 the interaction effect of methods and gender on students’ achievement and interest in Economics

Significance of Study

Practically, the findings of this study will benefit the following; students, teachers and policy makers. The students would benefit from the outcome of the study in the sense that it will help in encouraging self effort in learning among students, as this will make them sort solution themselves.

The teacher would benefit from the outcome of this study in the sense that the findings should help Economics teachers to know which teaching method would suit graphical topics in Economics in order to enhance students’ achievement and interest.

Finally, Educational policy makers would find this study useful in the sense that the findings can enable them to know whether seminars and workshops should be held in order to retrain teachers on the best ways and approach of teaching these concepts related to graphs in Economics.

Scope of the study

This study is delimited to senior secondary school students in Ikeduru local government area of Imo state. In terms of content coverage for the experiment, emphasis was laid on following concepts; Laws of Demand, Elasticity of Demand, Monopoly and Perfect Market in selected from the following content areas; Theory of Demand, Theory of Supply, Market Structure and Utility in the scheme of work for Economics from the senior secondary school curriculum of Federal Ministry of Education (2008).

Research questions

The following research questions were posed to guide the study:

1. What are the mean achievement scores of students exposed to demonstration and project method of teaching in graph related concepts in Economics?

2. What are the mean interest scores of students exposed to demonstration and project method of teaching in graph related concepts in Economics?

3. What is the influence of gender on the mean achievement scores of students in graph related concepts in Economics?

4. What is the influence of gender on the interest of students in graph related concepts in Economics?

5. What is the interaction effect of method and gender on students’ achievement in graph related concepts in economics

6. What is the interaction effect of method and gender on students’ interest in graph related concepts in economics

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated for the study;

H01: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of  the  students exposed to demonstration and project method of teaching in graph related concepts in Economics

H02: There is no significant difference in the mean interest scores  of  male  and female students exposed to demonstration and project method of teaching in graph related concepts in Economics

H03: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement score of male and female students in graph related concepts in Economics

H04: There is no significant difference in the mean interest  score  of  male  and  female students in graph related concepts in Economics

H05: There is no significant interaction effect of method and gender on students’ achievement in graph related concepts in Economics

H06: There is no significant interaction effect of method and gender on students’ interest in graph related concepts in Economics

.

EFFECT OF DEMONSTRATION AND PROJECTION METHODS OF TEACHING ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND INTEREST IN SOME GRAPH RELATED CONCEPTS IN ECONOMICS



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.org is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.org" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.