The major aim of this project research work is to produce emulsion paint from locally sourced pigment & extenders.

The materials used for the production was of local source.

The major raw materials used for the production of the emulsion paint: water, titanium iv oxide, calcium carbonate, kaoline, calgon, natrosol, biocide P.V.A, ammonia, deformer (Ginap) kerosene, yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide.

Emulsion paint of two (2) samples was produced, and calcium carbonate locally obtained was used in larger quantity in order to reduce the cost of production of the paint with little of the expensive titanium iv oxide added.

The first sample was a creamy white colour paint, while the second sample has a result of the mixture of blending of locally sourced yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide.  Pigment, that was added to it.  The two (2) samples gave high quality emulsion paints in terms of its brush ability, opacity, coverage, stability etc.

Quality control test carried out on the two (2) samples of emulsion paint showed that the local pigment and extenders used (titanium iv oxide, calcium trioxocarbonate iv, kaoline, yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide) fitted in so well in the paints to give the necessary adhesion, opacity and coverage, with excellent binding effect observed.


Title Page




Table of content



1.0    Introduction

1.1    Objectives of the research project

1.2    Scope of research work

1.3    Significance of study


2.0    Literature Review

2.1    Historical review of paint industry

2.2    Outline of paint technology

2.3    Paint types

2.3.1    Emulsion (water-based) paint

2.3.2    Latex paint

2.3.3    White wash

2.3.4    Case in paint

2.3.5    Cement paint

2.3.6    Linseed emulsion paint

2.3.7    Gloss (oil) paint

2.3.8    Enamels

2.3.9    Traffic paints

2.3.10     Making paints

2.4    Specialties

2.4.1    Fire-retardation paints

2.4.2    Aerosol colours

2.4.3    Insecticide paint

2.5    Paint composition and formulation

2.5.1    Resins (film formers)

2.5.2    Solvents

2.5.3    Pigments and extenders

2.6    Exterior building paints - formulation

2.7    Paint qualities and quality control

2.8    Description of raw materials for paint manufacture


3.0    Method of paint formulation

3.1    Raw materials for paint formulation

3.2    Raw materials for emulsion paint formulation

3.3    Functions of the raw materials

3.4    Formulation of emulsion paint

3.5    Principles of paint formulation

3.5.1    Pigment to binder ratio

3.5.2    Pigment volume concentration (PVC)

3.5.3    Solid content

3.5.4    Weight per volume

3.6    Process flow diagram (sheet) for production of emulsion paint

3.7    Block flow diagram for production of emulsion painbt

3.8    Formulea for samples selection


4.0    Quality control test

4.1    Equipments for quality control test

4.2    Quality control tests and results


5.0    Economic evaluation

5.1    Costing for sample A

5.2    Costing for formulation B

5.3    Profitability analysis

5.4    Break-even analysis


6.1    Discussion

6.2    Conclusion

6.3    Recommendation



Appendix 1

The son standard specification and the test properties of the samples

Appendix 2

Formulation for sample A

Appendix 3

Formulation for sample B

Appendix 4

Manufacture of titanium dioxide from its local ore (ILMENITE)



Paint is a fluid, or semi-fluid material which may be applied to surfaces in relatively thin layers, and which changes to a solid coating with time.  The coating with time.  The change to a solid material may or may not be reversible, and may occur by evaporation of solvent by chemical reaction, or by a combination of the two.

Paints usually consist of vehicle or binder, a pigment which contributes obscurities colour, hardness and bulk to the film, and a solvent or thinner which controls the consistency.

Paint is basically classified into two, which are gloss paint and emulsion paint.


These are paints that may be classified according to whether the drying mechanism is predominantly solvent evaporation, oxidation or some chemical reaction.  Gloss paints which dry essentially by solvent evaporation, reply on a fairly hard resin as the vehicle.

Paints which dry by oxidation, the vehicle is usually an oil or an oil-based varnish, these usually contains driers to accelerate the drying of the oil.  Paint based essentially on oil with suitable pigment such as titanium dioxide, extenders, and usually zinc – oxide and white lead, are conventional outside ho use paints because these materials give the combination. Of  properties which meet this requirement .


These are paints with water – soluble vehicle and they includes, calcimines, in which the vehicle is glue and case – in paints, in which the vehicles is casein or soyabean protein.

This project research study is directed towards producing and formulating of emulsion paint (water –thinned paint) from local pigments and extenders as raw materials.  The high demand for emulsion paint for protective and decorative purposes has encourage the development of different equipments for the manufacturing operation.

This piece of research work is due to reducing the high cost of emulsion paint formulation and production, because of the imported raw materials.  (E.g Titanium dioxide), and thereby disclosing a local raw material from our natural domin which could also be used for the same purpose.  An example of this locally obtained raw material for emulsion paint production is calcium carbonate in the form of calcite and dolomite.


The objectives of the research project work is to study the formulation and production of emulsion paint with the use of local pigments and extenders as raw materials, and its economic value, and also disclosing some locally sourced materials from our local environment that could play the same role with the imported raw materials that are used for emulsion paint production, which causes the cost of emulsion paint production to be high.

However, industrial survey reveals that paint manufacturers in Nigeria looks beyond the country territory for supply, and also, Nigerian paints industry is characterized by importation, starting from solvents which could be obtained in abundance from the country.


The scope of this research project work is organized to cover all vital aspect of emulsion paint formulation and production using local pigment and extenders as raw materials from our local environment, which will reduce the cost of emulsion paint production.

The scope will also cover paint types and classifications, characterization and functions of paints, and also chemicals used in the formulation and production of emulsion paint.  However, emphasis will be laid on the systematic procedure of processing the local pigments and extenders used which will also cover the following;

1.    Emulsion paint formulation and production

2.    Run-rest on the following properties of emulsion paint

i.    Drying time

ii.    Nature of reversibility

iii.    PH value

iv.    Specific gravity

v.    Obscurity

vi.    Viscosity

vii.    Resistance to external exposure

viii.    Brush ability


On considering the high cost of imported raw materials for the production of emulsion paint in the paint industry, which at the end of the production affect the market price, likewise causing economy constrain, there is need to lookout for those locally raw materials such as pigments and extenders (e.g calcium carbonate) which will give such desirable qualities and properties as those of imported raw materials (e.g Titanium Dioxide).

It will be interesting to not6e that chemical Engineering have some of possible solutions towards reduction of high cost of emulsion paint production and also this research project work is directed towards the vital needs for the used of local pigments and extenders as raw materials for the production of emulsion paint of high quality and standards which will stand the test of time and also compete with those emulsion paints produced with imported raw materials.

Finally, this research project work will be of more importance to the paint manufacturers in the country, who spend lost of money for importations of raw material, while they are bless with much raw materials as pigments and extenders for emulsion paint production in their country, it will also be of help to students researchers, and also reveals the importance of research among producers for future betterment and economy improvement.



In the course of this production of emulsion paint as a research project work, a detailed study was carried out pertaining the formulation and production of emulsion paint with the use of local pigment and extender.  Kaolin, clay dolomite, calcium carbonate and red oxide were among the pigments and extenders used.

They were locally sourced from the surrounding environment.  This is aimed at the processing and use of the locally sourced raw material specially the pigments and extenders, in the paint industry.  The research was also aimed to achieve a product of standard emulsio0n paint that fulfill the required standard stipulated by the standard organization of Nigeria (SON).  This is also believed to go a long way in encouraging the local paint manufactures to make more use of local raw materials, which is even more cheaper, than solely depending on the imported raw materials.

Much emphasis was laid on the pigments and extenders, which happen to be one of the basic raw materials in paint production.  The survey carried out recently show that almost all the paint manufacturers in Nigeria look beyond the country territory for supply of raw materials they use.  It is unfortunate that Nigeria paints industry is characterized by importation of raw materials starting from pigments to the solvents, while it could be comfortably obtained in abundance from the country if only government and private sectors would invest more in the processing of these raw materials, which the country is blessed with.  Take kaolin for instant, the raw materials research and development council (RMRDC)’s publication confirmed that the country housed over 100 millions tones of kaolin deposits distributed all over the country.  The kaolin used in this research project was obtained from Ozubulu in Anambra State, which has a reserve of about 4.2 million tones.

Likewise with dolomite, CaCo3, zinc oxide, red oxide (iron oxide), and even titanium dioxide (which is obtained from the processing of titanium ore with oleum with there extensive reserves distributed here and there all over the country.  

The raw pigments and extenders were processed by grounding into powder to obtain a very fine particle size of about 0.2-0.4 microns recommended for good quality paint with good surface finish.  The purity of the substance is also another important factor limiting the quality of the point, thus the raw pigments and extenders were all extracted and processed to put them in a best condition of purity for qualitative standard production.  For instance, in the case of kaolin and calcium carbonate raw lumps.  The lumps were first crushed and mixed with water into a slung.  All this level some amount of diatomite reagent may be added to decolorize the clay if necessary, after which the slung is pimped into a vibro-screen to extract foreign particles and impurities.  The slung is thereafter pumps into a filter press to eject the water.  Finally, the filtered cake of kaolin or calcium carbonate are dried, pulverized, milled and classifieds for industrial use.

In the formation part of the research, a careful study was carried out to determine the rightful proportions of the materials (pigments, extenders, binder, solvent, etc) that should be used for production of standard emulsion paint.  At end of each formulation and production, a series of tests were carried out to determine the quality of the product.  Therefore, the formulation of the emulsion paint, with the local pigment and extender, was based on the trial and error until good quality paint was produced. This procedure is considered the best method since the already existing formulations for emulsion paint with locally sourced pigments and extenders was not available to our reach.  The literature review of and emulsion paint formulation is typically base on the imported raw materials that has been standardized.

After the formulation and production of the emulsion paint6, two emulsion paints were produced.  They include a white-pigmented emulsion paint and a deep pink emulsion paint, gotten from the colour blending of red pigment (red oxide) and yellow pigment (yellow oxide) in the ratio of 3:2.

A laboratory tests were carried out to determine the characteristic properties and qualities of the paint sample produced such properties are PH, opacity, viscosity, colour, adhesion, fineness of grained, exposure testing, etc.

The properties were analyzed to ensure that the product quality conform with the standards set by the government through the organ of standard organization of Nigeria (SON).  Since the paint presented was the one of the best formulation therefore, the test analysis carried out will be based on it.  Most of the analysis done were carried out under the temperature of 27+ 2oc and humidity of 70+5% test panels.

The viscosity was found to be 85 creps unit, which is fairly above the market standard emulsion paint (75-80 creps unit), and is also fairly below the first class standard paint (about 95 creps unit ie above 6.0 poises).  This is attributed to the use of more quantities of binder and extenders in the production.

Opacity and brush ability were observed to be relatively within standard.  This must have beer as a result of the quality of pigment, extender, and thinner used in the production.  This will enable the local manufacturers remain in business.  The3 PH for the emulsion paint was satisfactory (ie the PH is 8.2).

The colour for the white paint is of standard while the colour for the deep pink paint sample was deviated slightly from that of the standard chart.   This is due to the fact that there are variations in the colour of the pigments used for the production and some of them are of poor quality.   The specific gravity of the emulsion paint is slightly higher than that of the standard.  This is caused by high proportion of calcium carbonate and kaolin used for the production.  The deformer at the other hand help to reduce the bubbles (thus reduces the volume) and increases the density (specific gravity).

Adhesion and fasteness to light of the samples were acceptable.  This is as a result of PVA added to the paint.  The drying time was observed to be within the standard dry time range (within 24 hours).  Although it dried within 24 hours, it supposed to dried in not more than 2hours, the delay in the time was caused by the atmospheric condition as a result of the research been carried out during the raining season.  But the deep pink sample dried within 1hr.

Some parameter such as rate of fungal growth, flexibility or bend test, etc were not analysis due to the fact that the duration of the analysis is longer than the stipulated time for this work.  

The emulsion paint was formulated with suitable biocide at a level that does not render the film hazardous to health and will still satisfy the fungus resistance test specified for a standard paint.   

The economical analysis carried out for emulsion paint produced showed that the use of local raw material is more economical than the use of foreign (imported) material for the paint production.  The overall analysis carried out showed that the use of local raw material in the paint production has a lot of advantages over its foreign counterpart, for which some of them are less cost of production, availability and nearness, no extra added cost such as import duty, and lastly, at a long run, it is going to motivation and encourage the local processors of the raw materials in the country which will at the same time improve the level of industrial and technological development in Nigeria.


Emulsion paints can be produced with 100% local raw materials and at a relatively cheap price and comparable quality.  Although the formulations here are not 100% local raw material, the pigments and extenders used were purely locally sourced and processed.  However, the major problems militating against the use of these local raw materials in the paint industry are inadequate exploitation and processing of these materials to the required ends.

The imported titanium dioxide can be substituted with the locally processed one from mineral compounds that contained titanium such as limonite (a black ferrous titanate).  Titanium is also present in many plants and can be detected in the residue when these are ashed.  Some other locally made materials can also substitute the imported pigment titanium dioxide; they include kaolin, cac03, treated lead, zinc oxide, antimony oxide, etc.

The extenders of different kind, such as compounds of barium, calcium, aluminum and magnesium, can all be produced locally in the country.  The local sourcing of these raw materials can only be achieved if the country will take the right step in the right direction since this project is so exorbitant for an individual.

The emulsion paint samples produced showed good emulsion paint performance and can stand the test of time, in the sense that their opacity, blushability, covering power and performance against weather and other factors were excellent.  Although the samples showed some deviation from the standard, they are still within the range of acceptability.  Some of the standards stipulated for standard emulsion paint is shown in appendix 1.

The economic run down of the production project showed that it is a feasible project that is worth embarking on by both the private individual and corporate bodies, who want to enjoy the benefits of harnessing and utilization of the abundant local raw materials in the country.


Though there has been improvement in the quality of paint produce in Nigeria, there is still a lot to be done especially by the local manufactures, government, research engineers and scientist.

The research engineers and scientist should collaborate with the raw materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC) on carrying out research on the raw material deposits in the country.  From their analysis they should devised a better and modern heavy of processing these raw materials especially the pigments and extenders used in paint industries.

The government on the other hand should made the fund available for execution of projects on R & D (Research and Development) carried out on these raw materials.  They should also build more and well equipped chemical processing industries that will process these raw materials into the standard form required for production.  This will help to discourage the local manufactures from their dependence on foreign raw materials.

The local paint manufactures should imbibe the use and utilization of these locally sourced raw materials in paint production.  The standard organization of Nigeria should ensure that manufactures incorporate well equipped labouratory in order to ensure that the paints produced conform with set standard which will withstand the tropical environment.  They should also carry routine analysis on samples produced by these manufactures and defaulters should be guided very well.

Moreso, manufactures should be advised to allow students on research work in their companies and with their product samples so that the aim of the project should be achieved.

Personal safety is very important while producing or using paint.  A prolonged skin, eye, or body contact, whether in powdered or liquid state, should be avoided.  Also safety wears such as eye goggle, nose mask hand glove and overall coat should be putting on during the production of emulsion paint, polyvinyl acetate should be added first before natrosol, this is because natrosol is far more denser them polyvinyl acetate and will form lumps in the paint if first added.

The natrosol itself should be dissolved in water very well before adding into the production.

Long and thorough stirring is recommended for standard quality paint.

Although the paint is supplied in a ready for use condition, thinning of up to 20 percent by volume with water is allowed, if necessary. 

For a safety precaution, a mercuric fungicide/biocide should not be used in the paint formulation and production.  




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