CURBING UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF NATIONAL DIRECTORATE OF EMPLOYMENT ANAMBRA STATE
The research work focuses on graduate unemployment and how the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) has helped in curbing it in Anambra state. The work is aimed at determining the cause and effect of Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria, highlight various policies and programmes put in place by the Government to curb unemployment, assess the National Directorate of Employment and find out problems (if any) hindering the effective performance of the directorate and provide possible solutions. Data was collected from both primary and secondary data while the systematic sampling method was used in determining the sample size and the opportunistic sampling method was used in its administration. Statistical tables and charts were used in the data analysis.
It was discovered that inadequate awareness and poor funding of the activities of the NDE in Anambra State undermined its activity, and that skills acquisition is an effective tool in reducing graduate unemployment. Consequently, specific skills acquisition schemes have been recommended as elements that could empower unemployed graduates; that specific skills acquisition schemes should be included in the curriculum of post-secondary schools. Organising symposia, seminars and using the media were some of the recommendations made for improvement on the awareness of the activities of the National Directorate of Employment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - - i
Approval - - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - v
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 DISCUSSION OF RELATED CONCEPTS
2.2.3 Labour Force
2.2.4 Full Employment
2.3 Types of Unemployment
2.3.1 Cyclical or Keynesian Unemployment
2.3.2 Frictional Unemployment
2.3.3 Structural Unemployment
2.3.4 Classical Unemployment
2.3.5 Seasonal Unemployment
2.3.6 Long-Term Unemployment
2.3.7 Hidden Unemployment
2.4 Yardstick for Measuring Unemployment
2.5 Costs of Unemployment
2.5.1 Individual/Psychological Costs
2.5.2 Economic Cost
2.5.3 Social Costs
2.6 Causes of Unemployment in Nigeria
2.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.8.1 The System Theory
2.8.2 Applicability of the System’s theory to the Study
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 AREA OF THE STUDY
3.4 SAMPLE OF THE STUDY
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT
3.7 TECHNIQUES OF DATA ANALYSIS
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2 Questionnaire Analysis
4.2.1: Determination of rates of Return and Response
4.2.2: Bio-data of Respondents
4.2.3: Sex Distribution
4.2.4: Age Distribution
4.2.5: Educational Qualification
4.3 Test of Hypothesis 1
4.3.1 General Awareness of NDE Activities in the Urban Area
4.3.3 Awareness of NDE’s Activities in the Rural Areas of Anambra
4.3.3 Rating of the Awareness Programme of NDE in Anambra State
Suggestions by Respondents as to how Awareness could be
4.3.5 High Enrolment due to Improved Awareness
4.3.6 Cumulative Percentage Analysis: Hypothesis One
4.3.7 Average Mean Score
4 Test of Hypothesis 2
4.4.1 Skills Acquired apart from Western Education
4.4.2 Self Employment
4.4.3 Nature of Self Employment
4.4.4 Acquisition of Specific Skills by Graduates in Anambra State
4.4.5 Self Employment an Alternative to Salaried Job
Skills Acquisition Schemes Established by the Government
4.4.6 and Self Employment
4.4.7 Inclusion of Specific Skills Acquisition Programme in Post-
Secondary School Curriculum
126.96.36.199 Opinions about Skills Acquisition Schemes in Nigeria
4.4.8 Cumulative Percentage Analysis: Hypothesis Two
4.4.9 Average Mean Score
4.5 Test of Hypothesis 3
4.5.1 Prompt Payment of Stipends and Resettlement Allowances
4.5.2 Sufficiency of Stipends and Resettlement Allowances
4.5.3 Funding as a Major Problem of NDE
4.5.4 Reasons for the answers to the question above
4.5.5 Cumulative Percentage Analysis: Hypothesis Three
4.5.6 Average Mean Score
4.6 Major Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5 Areas for Further Research
Journals, Articles and Reports
1.8 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The global economic depression which started in the early 1980’s has caused a rapid deterioration in Nigeria’s economy industrial output has become very low and commercial activities are hull leading to loss of employment by thousands of Nigerians through retrenchment and rationalization in many industries. Furthermore, the formal educational sector lame continued to turn out a teaming of graduates annually without a matching increase in employment opportunities.
This trend was confirmed by the labour force survey conducted by the national manpower board in 1966/67. The situation had become so bad that by the end of 1985 the unemployment situation had reached desperate and alarming proportions (10%-12%) not only in the urban area but also in the rural area while 1974 was limited to the urban centers. The resultant effect is the increase in different kinds of antisocial activities such as house breaking arrived robbery drugs trafficking etc.
In an effort to redress the situation and stem the tide of increase anti-social activities arising from youths unemployment January 1987 set up the national directorate of employment (NDE) with the aim of institutionalizing schemes to support the self-employment aspirations of the Nigerian youths.
Various development plans had it as an objective to effectively solve the problems of unemployment. This has led to the initiation of various agricultural development programmes.
Banks and industries were set up in the rural areas to give jobs to the rural dwellers many other programmes and polices were established but were not effective enough as to restructure the economy. Privatization and commercialization of certain government establishment led to workers being laid off from their jobs resulting in greater unemployment. This situation then made it necessary for the establishment of national directorate of employment (N.D.E) to combat the grooming problems of unemployment.
1.9 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The problems of unemployment in Anambra state is becoming more unbearable as it is threatening the Nigeria economy people find it difficult to survive. An alarming structure of unemployment emerged with the rising joblessness amongst graduates of tertiary institutions. The problem now is finding solution (s) to unemployment problems in Anambra state.
The government on the other hand decided to alleviate this problem by embarking on self-employment schemes as one of the measures to solve the problems. However inspite of the government effort to alleviate the problems of unemployment in Anambra state unemployment still persist because not all unemployed could be deployed in the government self employment schemes provided.
1.10 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The specific objective for the study includes the following
⦁ To highlight various policies and programmes being put in place by government in order to curb the menace of Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria particularly National Directorate.
⦁ To find out if the National Directorate of Employment is reducing Graduate Unemployment through its skills acquisition schemes.
⦁ To find out the problems (if any) hindering the effective performance of the National Directorate of Employment.
⦁ To proffer possible solutions to the problems being faced by the National Directorate of Employment and make recommendations that will help improve the Directorate.
1.11 RESEARCH QUESTION
⦁ Is the National Directorate of Employment combating mass employment through its skills acquisition schemes?
⦁ Is it designing and implementing programmes to combat mass unemployment?
⦁ Are there problems that hinder its effectiveness?
⦁ Why is the unemployment rate on the rise
1.12 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is hoped will help people especially those in the labour force to understand better how the problems of unemployment could be solved through the programmes and activities of NDE.
It will also help to awaken in young school leaves their desire to seek solution to their unemployment or joblessness through NDE programmes.
The benefits to the government is that it help the government to assess past policy measure for solving unemployment problems
It will also help the policy formulator to formulate polices and recommended strategies towards solving unemployment situation in Anambra state.
Similarly it will help government to design acquisition and self-employment programmes targeted at millions of Nigerian school leavers.
It will also help to achieve overall economic development through adequate labour employment in Anambra state.
Through its training acquisition programme the public especially the school leaves will be able to prepare those involved towards acquiring the required employment skills.
Youths who before training possesses no marketable or employable skill set wage employment or establish their own enterprises upon graduation from NOAS training scheme.
It goes a long way in providing employment for the school leavers who might have been under the NDE programmes.
The NDE promotes graduate employment through a range of training scheme and attitudinal re-orientation to explore self-employment and self-reliance as an alternative to limited opportunities for paid employment. The organization is promoting long-term structural change in employment expectation and job search practiced by graduates.
1.13 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is an appraisal and is to be carried out in Anambra state unemployment problems. The national directorate of employment will be involved in the study, as they would constitute the population.
1.14 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The main constraint of the research is divided into 3 parts. They are time finance and the attitude of the respondents.
1. Time constraints: Due to the time given for this study the researcher could not get all the required information needed for the study
2. Finance: The researcher has not got enough money to embark on this study due to money constraints the researcher could not visit places where necessary information relevant to the study could be obtained.
3. Attitude of the respondent: The attitude of the respondents limited the research work because some of the respondents were unwilling to corporate with the researcher because they felt they have nothing to benefit from the study both financially and otherwise..