GENDER CONSIDERATIONS AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA
The purpose of this research is to find out how Gender Consideration and Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria bring economic development through entrepreneurship in Northern Nigeria. A case study of Oju Printing Press Limited. Gender Consideration in any business decisions help in smooth running of business organization as well as greater productivity. Entrepreneurship as the engine of development play a vital role in the economic development of a nation. Entrepreneurship development enhance the living standard of people. The specific objective of this study is to evaluate some businesses that are more suitable to men than women. To find out if that is the right approach to economic development through entrepreneurship development in Northern Nigeria with particular reference to Oju Printing Press limited Kaduna South Local Government Area.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii
Approval Page - - - - - - - - - iii
Table of Content - - - - - - - - iv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1Background to the Study------1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 2
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - - - 2
1.4 Statement of Hypothesis - - - - - - 3
1.5 Significance of the Study - - - - - - 3
1.6 Scope of the Study - - - - - - - 4
1.7 Limitation of the Study - - - - - - 4
1.8 Historical Background of the Case Study - - - 4
1.9 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurship Development Defined - - - - - - - 10
2.2 Basic Prerequisites for Effective Entrepreneurship - 12
2.3 Entrepreneurship Development Effort in Nigeria - - 15
2.4 Entrepreneurship Development in Northern Nigeria - 20
2.5 Gender Considerations in Entrepreneurship Development - - - - - - - - 24
2.6 Socio-cultural Practices, militating against the effective participation of Women in Entrepreneurship Development in Northern Nigeria - - - - - - - 25
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - - 28
3.2 Research Population - - - - - - - 28
3.3 Sampling size and Sampling Technique - - - 29
3.4 Methods of Gathering Data - - - - - - 29
3.5 Justification for the Method Used - - - - 30
3.6 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 30
3.7 Justification for the Instrument Used - - - - 30
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION
4.0 Introduction- - - - - - - - - 32
4.1 Distribution of the Responses- - - - - - 33
4.2 Test of Hypothesis - - - - - - - - 42
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings - - - - - - - 46
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 47
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - 47
References - - - - - - - - - 49
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Individuals go into business for the sake of obtaining regular income, becoming self employed and also help others. Although there are different kinds of business enterprises that female and male can go into, often times, some businesses are regarded as more suitable for one sex and not the other. This means that there are some gender considerations in the choice of business one goes into and, by extension, in entrepreneurship development.
Apparently, gender attitudes and behaviours may have positive or negative effect on entrepreneurship development in a society or economy.
This research work therefore intends to take a critical look at gender considerations as they affect entrepreneurship development with particular reference to Northern Nigeria in general, using Oju Printing Press Limited Kaduna, Kaduna South Local Government area as a case study, and also to suggest the possible solutions to indentified problems and give recommendations where necessary.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Entrepreneurship has generally been recognized as a good medium or strategy for economic development of an individual, a community and a nation. It is also a known fact that some gender considerations are often used in the choice of business or even the decision to go into business. For example, some businesses are regarded as more suitable to men than women. The question here is, is this the right approach to economic development through entrepreneurship? Of what effect is this approach to entrepreneurship development?
These and other questions are what this research work intends to find answers to, and, if possible make recommendations where possible.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the gender and entrepreneurship development in Northern Nigeria, also to study some of the gender considerations in entrepreneurship development and its impact on economic development effort in Nigeria particularly Northern Nigeria. The study specifically hopes to suggest possible solutions to any gender related impediments to entrepreneurship development.
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis has been formulated to serve as a guide for the study.
H0: That gender considerations have no significant effect on entrepreneurship development in Northern Nigeria.
H1: That gender considerations, have significant effect on entrepreneurship development in Northern Nigeria.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will provide a guide for any me on the establishment of a business in Nigeria. This study will help me ensure a proper approach to gender considerations in the decision and to any individual that want to establish a business (entrepreneur) in order to achieve maximum profit and productivity.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work will concentrate on gender considerations and entrepreneurship development in Northern Nigeria. The scope is limited to Oju Printing Press Nigeria Limited, Kaduna South, the management, staff and other employees of the organization.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the course of this study many problems were encountered. Collection of relevant data was a problem because what the organization regard to their “secret”.
Other limitations of the research include cost of visiting the organization to see the people necessary to get the relevant information. Sometime the staff concerned may not be on seat.
Time was another limiting factor faced by the researcher. A researcher will have to share the limited time.
1.8 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY
Oju Printing Press Limited is a small-scale organization which employed over Two Hundred and Fifty (250) workers made of different categories like Managers, Supervisors, Intermediate and Junior workers. Oju Printing Press is a sole proprietorship business. It is owned by Chief Gabriel O. Oju, it was established on 20th August, 1969 and was situated at VVI Lagos/Keffi Street, Kaduna.
Oju Printing Press was setup with the objective of providing the best quality printing services to customers at affordable prices and at the appropriate time. At the early life of the press, it started with letterpress and binding machine. Namely: letter press Heidelberg and cutting machines.
In the course of expression, the press relocated to Nc3 Oshogbo road, Kaduna in 1979. The press increased its machines by purchasing Rita prints, Plate Maker, Camera and Kond. During this period of the press ahs increased its area of specialization from letter press to offset printing.
In 1986, they moved to J11 Main Street, Badarawa Road, Kaduna in June 1993 and finally moved to VV15 Nassarawa Road, Kaduna in June 1998 as its permanent site up till date. Between 1993 till date it has acquired additional machines such as Multilith 1850, stitching machine, computers and ruling machine.
This organization is engaged in the publishing of companies annual reports, textbooks, invoice, receipts, calendars, invitation cards, business cards etc. Oju Printing Press is an organization worthy to be emulated, judging by its achievement.
Within the period of its existence, the organization has rendered a lot of services to prominent companies of government parastatals within the country among are: NITEL Headquarters – Lagos, National Electric Power Authority Kaduna, Kaduna State Water Board, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Kaduna, Bayero University Kano etc.
Below is a sample of what Oju printing press organizational chart should look like.
Oju Printing Press Organizational Chart
Source: Oju Printing Press, 2012.
1.1 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i) Gender: Refers to female or male
ii) Consideration: Consideration means involvement, regarding and concluding
iii) Development: Development means to improvement, gradual improvement in future.
iv) Entrepreneur: A person who engage in business and take the risk involve in that business.
v) Enterprise: Enterprise is a name of firm.
vi) Advertising: It is the aspect of promotion, which try to convince people about the virtues of a production by using mass media.
vii) Publicity: Is the activities of securing editorial space as divorce from paid staff from all media read, viewed by company for the specific purpose of assisting in the meeting of sale.
viii) Public Relation: This is the process of fostering goal with outsider, so that people will desire to do business with your company.
ix) Personal Selling: Process of information and persuading in order to buy their production and services from which benefit are derived.
x) Sale Promotion: It is a techniques which company adopted to capture target customers by attaching small gifts to their product so as to generate sales.
xi) Merchandising: Is a special or ad-hoc promotion, it might involve a special arrangement of the shop at a particular season or the use of contests such as the one for may come up at a particular period of the year.
xii) Store Demonstration: It is where a group of customers or users may be called into the shop or demonstrate a new product..