BIO-CHEMISTRY OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD, DIETARY, IMPORTANCE AND HEALTH EFFECT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
1.1 Regulation related to functional foods
1.2 Classification of functional foods
1.3 Functional food from plant
1.4 Functional food from animal
2.0 Chemistry of functional foods
2.6 Citrus fruits
2.8 Wine and grapes
2.9 Diary product
3.0 Dietary importance
3.1 Health Effects
The primary role of diet is to provide sufficient nutrient to meet the national requirement of an individual. There is now increasing scientific evidence to support the hypothesis that some food component have beneficial physiological and psychological effect occur and above the provision if the basic nutritional adequately to the concept of “positive” or optimal” nutrition, “potter 1998”
The research focus has shifted move to the identification of biologically active component in food that have the potential to optimal physical and mental well being and which many also reduce the risk of disease. Many traditional food product including fruit, vegetable, Soya all grains and milk have been found to contain component with potential health benefit. In addition to these foods, now foods are being developed to enhance or incorporate there beneficial component for their health benefit or desrable physiological effect “Abertet 1998”.
The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan in the mild 1980s “Senders 1994” health authorized in Japan recognized that an improved quality of it must accompany increasing life expectancy for the expanding number of elderly people in the population if health care cost wee to be controlled. The concept of food that was developed specifically to promote health or reduce the risk of disease was introduced.
The term functional food now refer to processed food containing ingredient that aid specific bodily functions in addition to being nutrition. “Alman et al 1995”. To date, Japan is the only country that has formulated a specific regulatory approval process for functional foods.
“Foshu” i.e food for specified health use, currently, 100 product are licensed as FOSHU foods in Japan “Arai 1995”. The roles of functional foods are disease prevention and health promotion. In the united state, the functional foods categorist not recognized legally. In respect of this, many organization have proposed definition for the new and emerging area of the food and nutrition science. The institute of medicines food and nutrition board “IOM/FND, 1994”, defined functional food as “any food or food ingredient that man provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrient it contains.
Health conscious baby consumers have made functional food the leading trend in the US food industry “Meyer, 1998”
This food provide the health benefit beyond basic nutrition due to certain physiological active component, which may or may not have been manipulated or modified to enhance their bioactivity. Many of these foods also help prevent disease, reduce the risk of developing disease, or enhance health consumers interest in functional food increased during the late twentieth century as people interest in achieving and maintaining good health increased “Aderson et al 1997”
Health conscious consumers have become aware of the health benefit associated with specific foods and are incorporating element such as fiber calcium, and soya into thief diets. Rapid advances in food science and technology have increase population. The rapid rise in health care cost this population.
There is a difference between the western and eastern perspective on functional foods.
In the west functional food are considered revolutionary and present a raiding growing segment of food industry. Food and pharmaceutical companies alike competing to bring functional foods into the mass market on the other hand, functional foods have been a part of Eastern culture for centuries. Food were used for medical purpose in traditional Chinese medicine as early as 100B C.E form ancient time, the five and the Chinese have used foods for both preventive and therapeutic health effect, a view that is now being increasingly recognized around the world.
Clearly, most food are functional in some way. What make a functional food however, is it potential ability to positively affect health. Functional foods mugged from fruits, vegetable and whole grains which are naturally high in ploytochemical to product in which a specific ingredient is added, removed or increased or decreased example of functional foods include, soy, oats, flaxseed, grape juice, broccoli and other cruciferous vegetable, phytosterol, enriched margarine, eggs enhanced with omega 3 facty acids, food fortified with herbal preparation and phylum.
1.1 REGULATION RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL FOODS
Functional foods are regulated by the united state food and drug administration (FDA) under the authority of two laws. The federal, drug and cosmetic act (FD & C) of 1938 provide for the regulation of all foods and food additive. The dietary supplement health and education act (DSHEA) of 1994 amended the FD and C act to covers dietary supplement and ingredient of dietary supplement. Functional food may be categorized as whole foods, enriched foods, fortified foods or enhanced foods. Labeling claims that are used on functional foods are of two types these are:
Structure and functional claims which described affect on normal functioning of the body, but not claims that the foods can treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure a disease (claims such as “promotes regularity” helps maintain cardiovascular heath and support the immune system fit in to this category) Bierenbaum et al 1973)
Disease risk reduction claims which imply a relationship between dietary component and disease or health condition.
Structure and function claim do not require the approval by the FDA and they require much less stringent scientific consensus than disease risk reduction claims. Under the FD and C act, structure and function claims can not be false or misleading. However, the law does not define the nature or extent of evidence necessary to support these claims to complicate matters, the evidence available to support structure and function on claims varies widely (Unmare et al 1993).
1.2 CLASSIFICATIONS OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
These functional foods can be derived from two main source e.g plant and animals.
1.3 FUNCTIONAL FOOD FROM PLANT: Are oats, soy, flaxseed, tomatoes, garlic, broccolis and others cruciferous vegetable, citrus fruits, cranberry, wine and grape
1.4 FUNCTIONAL FOOD FROM ANIMAL SOURCE: There are, fish, daioy product and beet crwonell (1997).