THE EFFECTS OF MANPOWER TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA PUBLIC ENTERPRISES: THE CASE STUDY OF ANAMBRA MOTOR MANUFACTURING COMPANY LTD (ANAMCO)
This study was aimed at discovering how staff training and development enhance organizational effectiveness. The study also aimed at finding out how training needs are determined in Anambara Motor Manufacturing Company. It also tried to examine the various training programmes provided in ANAMCO and tried to investigate the impact of Staff Training and Development on productivity rate in ANAMCO. The study started with an introduction, which occupied the first chapter. It explored the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives, significance, scope and limitations of the study. Chapter two embodied the literature review which had its sub themes as; concept of Manpower Training, Manpower Development as a concept, Stages/steps in organizing Manpower training and development prograamme, Importance of Manpower Training and Development in Organizations, Impact of Manpower training and development in employees performance, Ways of enhancing the effectiveness of Manpower training and development prograamme in organizations. Chapter three focused on background information on ANAMCO. Data presentation and analysis was presented in chapter four using statistical tables to show the percentage and number of responses from the study population while chapter five dealt with summary, conclusion and recommendation.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Manpower Training and Development is essential to the success of every organization. Although technology and the internet have enabled global collaboration and competition, employees are still the organization’s competitive advantage. Manpower training and development enables employees to develop skills and competence necessary to enhance bottom-line results for their organizations.
Every organization is established for a purpose. The purpose of any organization is being achieved by man who is the source of existence of the organization. Hence, the necessity for staff training and development. Manpower training and development seeks to improve the performance of work units, departments, and the whole organization. It looks in depth at where an organization stands in comparison to where it hopes to be in the future, and develops the skills and resources to get there. The ultimate goal of staff training and development is to enable the organization to grow stronger in achieving its purpose and mission.
Organizations in order to enhance efficiency and effectiveness embark on the following;
1. Human Resource Development: The process of equipping individuals with the understanding, skills and access to information, knowledge and training that enable them to perform effectively.
2. Organizational Development: The elaboration of management structures, processes and procedures, not only within organizations but also the management of relationships between the different organizations and sectors (Public, Private and Community).
3. Institutional and Legal Framework Development: Making legal and regulatory changes to enable organizations, institutions and agencies at all levels and in all sectors to enhance their capacities (Abiodun, 1999).
The recognition that human resources are value means for improving productivity as the most valuable assets of any organization since the management of other resources (e.g. information resources, material resources e.t.c) entirely depends on it, this study was based on how those assets could be developed.
The importance of training and development is very crucial given the growing complexity of the work environment, the rapid change in organizations and advancement in technology, among other things. Training and development helps to ensure that organizational members possess the knowledge and skills they need to perform their jobs effectively, take on new responsibilities and adapt to changing conditions.
Training both physically, socially, intellectually and mentally is very essential in facilitating not only the level of productivity but also the development of personnel in organizations. Therefore, training can be put in a context relevant to school administrators. However, knowledge is the ability, the skill, the understanding, the information, which every individual requires in order to be able to function effectively and perform efficiently.
Abiodun (1999) submitted that training is a systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job. It can take place in a number of ways, on the job or off the job; in the organization or outside the organization. Adeniyi (1995) observed that staff training and development is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. He therefore provides a systematic approach to training which covers the main elements of training.
Man is dynamic in nature, the need to be current and relevant in all spheres of human endeavours make staff development a necessity to keep track with current event and methods. Griffin (1978), Ajibade (1993), Adeniyi (1995) and Arikewuyo (1999) have drawn the attention of the entire sundry to the inestimable value of Training and Development. It is an avenue to acquire more and new knowledge and develop further the skills and techniques to function effectively.
Pitfield (1982) is of the opinion that the objectives of training are to; provide the skills, knowledge and aptitude necessary to undertake required job efficiently and develop the workers so that if he has the potentials, he may progress, increase efficiently by reducing spoilt work, misuse of machine and lessening physical risks.
Scholars, experts, social scientist and also school administrators now recognize the fact that training is obviously indispensable, not only in the development of the individuals but also facilitates the productive capacity of the workers.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria, inefficiency is a very serious problem that needs to be addressed urgently. Europe faced this same problem in the 18th and 19th centuries and writers such as Max Weber (1947), Vroom (1970), and a host of others were able to address the issue of how organizations can increase output and improve efficiency.
Most organizations find it difficult to identify the training needs, and even where the need is recognized, a lot of time and money is committed to staff training and development. The exercise is often either in-appropriate, haphazard or premised on a faulty diagnosis of organizational training needs. In other situations, where training happens to occur, deployment of staff so trained may
be without regard to the skill the staff acquired, leading to frustration of personnel so trained and also general inefficiency in the system. Public enterprises in Nigeria are fond of this practise (Onah 2008). The workforce is generally under-tapped, under-utilized and therefore falls short of its anticipated contributions to the realization of organizational goals. It is appalling to note that mangers in Nigeria have paid little or no attention on staff training programmes often manifest tripartite problems of incompetence, inefficiency and ineffectiveness. Numerous scholars have been writing on how efficiency, competence and effectiveness can be achieved through training.
Among other scholars that highlighted the usefulness of training are Graig (1976), Akintayo (1996), and Oguntimehin (2001). They identified the functions of training as follows; increase productivity, improves the quality of work, improves skills, knowledge, understanding and attitude; enhance the use of tools and machine; reduces waste, accidents, turnover, lateness, absenteeism and other overhead costs, eliminates obsolesce in skills, technologies, methods, products, capital management etc. It brings incumbents to that level of performance which needs the performance for the job; enhance the implementation of new policies and regulations; prepares people for achievement, improves man-power development and ensures the survival and growth of the enterprise.
However, in light of the above expositions, the following questions were posited to guide the study;
1. How are the training needs determined in Anambra Motor Manufacturing Company?
2. Is there any significant relationship between training and development of employees and the productivity level of the employees of Anambra Motor Manufacturing Company?
3. What are the impact of staff training and development on the performance of the employees of Anambra Motor Manufacturing Company?
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The general objective is to examine how staff training and development enhance organizational effectiveness.
The specific objectives are to:
1. Find out how training needs are determined in Anambra Motor Manufacturing Company.
2. Examine if there is any significant relationship between training and development of employees and the productivity level of the employees of Anambra Motor Manufacturing Company.
3. Investigate the impact of Staff Training and Development on the performance of employees in Anambra Motor Manufacturing Company.
4. To proffer possible measures for improvement.
SIGINIFICANCE OF STUDY
The significance of this research work, lies in its contribution to the literatures on human resource training and development. This research work would largely complement our broad based knowledge on the nature, functions, objectives and character of manpower resources training and development. In other words, it would serve as a primary source of data to readers and researchers.
Theoretically, the research work would also stimulate future readers in the task of complementing the work already done. For this reason, the study will add to the body of knowledge and as well aid the organizations in understanding the abysmal conditions shrouding most human resources training and development policies.
It is hoped that, apart from the research work enriching existing literatures on human resources training and development, it will be of immense benefit to future researchers and scholars in the quest for additional knowledge.
At the practical level, it will serve as a guide to practioners in the field of public administration especially in the formulation of policies on human resources training and development. The research work will in this manner, serve as a guide for policy instruments.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
It will be too wide and unmanageable for us to carry out a study on employee training and development. Its implication will be that while studying employee training and development in the whole wide-world we related it to both private and public organizations. To escape this danger, the scope of this study was reduced to manpower training and development in the Nigeria public services. Even at this, studying the whole public service in Nigeria will also be too unmanageable for us. This made us to further reduce the scope or width of the study on Anambra Motor Manufacturing Company 2003-2009.
The intention was to use the study in generalizing on manpower training and development in Nigeria public organization.
However, there always exist many constraints militating against a good research work. Among these limitations/ constraints include the unwillingness attitude of some individuals and civil servants to come up with relevant information, for some reasons best known to them.
Another constraint is that of reaching to the appropriate respondents. Most of our respondents do not reside where they can be easily reached and this posed a problem for the researcher.
Besides, some of the respondents subjected the researcher to some rigorous bureaucratic process thereby making it hard for the researcher to get some relevant information needed for the study and this also posed a limitation to the researcher.
However, despite these constraints, the research was successfully carried out through persistence and perseverance.
LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION
In order to evaluate and clarify the related works of other scholars in our field of study, especially as relates to this work and also to establish a fundamental basis for this research work, the related literatures will be reviewed under the following sub-themes:
Þ The concept of Manpower Training
Þ Manpower Development as a concept
Þ Stages/steps in organizing Manpower training and development prograamme.
Þ Importance of Manpower Training and Development in Organizations
Þ Impact of Manpower training and development in employees performance
Þ Ways of enhancing the effectiveness of Manpower training and development prograamme in organizations..