DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PYRAMID-SHAPED SOLAR


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PYRAMID-SHAPED SOLAR  

Table of content

Title page………………..i

Certification………….…ii

Dedication………………iii

Acknowledgement……….iv

Table of content……...…v

Chapter one

1.1 introduction

1.2   problem description and significance

1.2    Aim and objectives

1.3 significance of the study

Chapter two

Literature review

 2.1   introduction

 2.2   literature review on solar water distiller

2.3 theoretical analysis

Chapter three

3.1   method and materials

3.2.1    dimension

3.2.2    Materials used in the measurement

Chapter four

Result and discussion

Chapter five

Conclusion and recommendations

References

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION:  DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PYRAMID-SHAPED SOLAR

Distilled water is needed for drinking, irrigation and for many other applications. A diversity of approaches are used for these portions of fresh water from saline water; namely multi stage flash (MSF), multiple effect (ME), reverse osmosis (RO), electro dialysis, ion exchange, phase change, and solvent extraction. These methods are expensive, however, for the production of small amount of fresh water. The development of solar distillation has demonstrated its suitability for the desalination process when the weather conditions are suitable and the demand is not too large, i.e. less than 200 m³/d. The problem of low daily productivity of the solar stills triggered scientists to investigate various means of improving the stills productivity and thermal efficiency.

Different aspects of triangular-shaped solar stills (CSS), also called double slope stills, have been studied. Production in this still is influenced by the orientation, as shown by (Singh et al., 1995) who found the maximum yield for a cover with east–west. Detailed studies of heat transfer coefficients can also be found, (Sharma and Mullick, 1991), in which energy transfer mechanisms, such as convection, evaporation and radiation are investigated, and new empirical relations to estimate cover temperatures are proposed. To model heat and mass transfer in solar stills ( Dunkle, 1961)  proposed the use of a correlation of the form  where C is 0.075 and n is 1/3 for air enclosed between horizontal parallel plates. This correlation is expressed in terms of a modified temperature difference that includes molecular weight and buoyancy, and considers the cover as a single element. This has been the most widely accepted model for solar stills and describes the basic heat and mass transport mechanism between heated water mass and a condenser.

1.2   PROBLEM DESCRIPTION AND SIGNIFICANCE

Many parts of the world do not have access to a suitable source of clean drinking water. Most of the water available in streams, lakes, rivers, sea, etc. carries parasites or diseases, or is simply not fit for consumption and therefore is a significant health hazard. Areas without access to clean water are also usually poverty stricken and do not have the infrastructure necessary to create and support large scale water purification plants. Thus, there is need for a small scale, affordable water purification system for individual families or villages. Africa has the second largest population of people without access to clean drinking water.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES: 

a.     The aim of this project is to construct pyramid-shaped solar.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   To compare and evaluate the triangular and pyramid-shaped solar stills.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: 

The energy from the sun used to distil water is free cost, but building the still makes the cost of the distilled rather high, water at least for large-scale uses and such as agriculture and flushing away wastes in industry and homes. Consequently, the solar still is used principally to purify water for drinking and for some business, industries, laboratories, and green house applications; it also appears to be able to purify polluted water

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The efficiency of the two types of solar stills were developed at the National Centre for Energy Research and Development, Usmanu Danfodiyo University sokoto Nigeria, and were compared by distillation of unclean water. The use of pyramidal coverage favoured the better positioning related to the sun, the temperature analysis of the systems shows that during the day the pyramidal-shaped still performed better giving a higher water temperature when compared to the triangular-shaped with lower water temperature. The pyramid -shaped solar still gave an average efficiency of 36.8% while the triangular -shaped type performed at 28.9% efficiency. Hence the pyramid -shaped solar still in comparison with the triangular -shaped type is recommended for use to especially people living in coastal areas.

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PYRAMID-SHAPED SOLAR



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