AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF AUDIO–VISUAL AIDS AMONG NURSE EDUCATORS IN SCHOOLS OF NURSING IN ANAMBRA STATE
Teaching and learning activities are interesting when audio visual aids are used effectively and efficiently in a classroom teaching situation. A well planned and imaginative use of audiovisual aids in lessons should do much to banish apathy, and give students something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves. This study was carried out to investigate the availability and utilization of audio visual aids among the nurse educators in Schools of Nursing, Anambra State, South-east Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive cross sectional design. All the 116 nurse educators in Schools of Nursing in Anambra State comprised the subjects for the study. Data were collected using researcher-constructed questionnaire with a reliability of 0.816. Statistical analysis of the data generated was done using simple descriptive statistical analysis and inferential statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) to analyze the relationship between variables. The major findings of the study are that in Schools of Nursing, Anambra State, white boards 116 (100%), models 116 (100%), charts 116 (100%), textbooks/library 114 (98.3%) and specimens 110 ( 94.8%) are available for teaching and learning. Teachers greatly use whiteboards(100%) and textbooks(82.3%) while teaching. 99% of the teachers have knowledge of challenges associated with the utilization of audio visual aids. 100% of the teachers agreed that there are strategies to be adopted to resolve challenges hindering the effective use of audio visual aids. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) in the utilization of audio visual aids between male and female teachers. There was no significant difference ( p > 0 .05 ) between teachers experience and their utilization of audio visual aids. There was no significant difference ( p > 0 .05 ) between teachers’ ranks and their utilization of audio visual aids. There was no significant difference ( p > 0 .05 ) in the challenges associated with audio visual aids use among the teachers. Findings of this study revealed that there is still need to train teachers so that they will be knowledgeable in planning and using audio visual aids for effective classroom instruction. The governments should provide funds for the purchase of more audio visual aids, teachers should be supervised for proper and effective use of audio visual aids. The teachers and students should be involved in the improvisation of audio visual aids.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page . . . . . . . ...i
Approval . . . . . . . ....ii
Certification . . . . . . . ... iii
Dedication . . . . . . . . .. iv
Acknowledgement . . . . . . . ... v
Table of contents . . . . . . . ... vi
Abstract . . . . . . . ... ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the study . . . . . . . .. 1
Statement of the problem . . . . . . . 4
Purpose of the study . . . . . . . . 4
Research hypotheses . . . . . . . . 4
Significance of the study . .. . . . . 5
The scope of the study . . . . . . . 6
Operational definition of terms .... .. 6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual review . . . . . . . . . . 8
Concept of audiovisual aid . . . . . . . . . 8
History of the use of audiovisual aids . . . . . . . 12
Classifications of audiovisual aids . . . . . . . ... 13
Method of using over head projector . . . . . . . 25
Types of charts . . . . . . . . . . 44
Models . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Production of audiovisual aids. . . . . . . ... 104
Improvisation . . . . . . . . . . 106
Factors that militate against effective utilization of audiovisual aids . . . 118
Strategies to improve the use of audiovisual aids. . . . . . 122
Theoretical review.. . . . . . . . . . 128
Application of social learning theory . . . . . . . 130
Empirical review . . . . . . . . 137
Summary of literature review . . . . . . 145
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
Research design . . . . . . . . 147
Area of study . . . . . . . . . 147
Population of study . . . . . . . . 148
Sample . . . . . . . . . 148
Instrument for data collection . . . . . . 150
Validity of instrument . . . . . 150 Reliability of the instrument . . . . . . . 150
Ethical consideration . . . . . . . . 151
Procedure for data collection . . . . . . 151
Method of data analysis . . . . . . . 151
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
Presentation of result 152
Summary of findings 161
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS
Discussion of major findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Implications of the study . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Limitations of the study . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Suggestion for further studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Summary of the study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Recommendation. . . . . . . . . . . 172
References . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Appendices . . . . . . . . . 181
Background to the study
The teacher’s task is by no means easy as it involves someone who has some ideas, knowledge, information or experiences trying to share what he or she has with someone else who does not have a similar experience. It is a communication task which requires the teacher to use every available means to convince the learners to buy his/her ideas or accept the message. It is not enough for the teacher to give information, he or she must support what he or she says with educational media which appeal to the learners’ sensory experience so that learning may be effective.
Audio visual aids, otherwise referred to as educational media, could be defined as the wide variety of equipments and materials used for teaching and learning by teachers and students (Okechukwu, 2010). They are instructional materials by which the teacher, through the utilization of more than one sensory channel is able to clarify, establish and correlate concepts, interpretation and appreciations. They make dynamic learning experience more concrete and realistic. The use of audio visual aids improves students’ critical and analytical thinking.
In the past, a teacher effectiveness depends on his knowledge of the subject matter, knowledge of how to organize and present content meaningfully and an understanding of those being taught, but today, much emphasis is placed upon the use of audio visual aids. Audio visual aids make learning more permanent in the minds of the learners because people remember about 90% of what they see and do. Gana (2000) opined that the successful utilization of any audio visual aid depends on the wisdom and the resourcefulness of the teacher. The teacher should make adequate use of available audio visual materials on his everyday teaching. This will arouse the interest of the students and enable them see things in their natural setting.
When education was introduced in Nigeria in the past, chalkboards, charts, pictures and some concrete objects were only used as audio visual materials, but with the recent developments in the education system, materials like model, television, computer and radio-tape recorderare now being used in the schools. Audio visual aids are very crucial to the proper implementation of any curriculum used in the education process (Eze, Ani,& Eya, 2007). Learners are supposed to see, hear, feel, touch and practice whatever they are learning, and for every academic delivery to be effective, cognizance should be taken of the present day education and technology and their efficient gadgets and techniques resulting in improved way of learning. The teacher as a chamber of knowledge has to improve his mode of lesson delivery to be in line with the current trend. He cannot remain static in a world that is constantly changing educationally and technologically, he should familiarize himself with the innovation that abound in his profession so as to cope with up-coming challenges. This is because one way of ensuring that the learner is being carried along in the process of learning is by the provision and utilization of audio visual aids in teaching. When teaching is appropriately done with appropriate audio visual aids, it has a direct impact on students’ achievements since their interests in learning are stimulated (Abbatte and Mcmahon 2002).
Education is a life long activity, therefore, a learner must be supplied with the necessary skills to enable him or her perform effectively in his or her environment and the world at large. The learner can only have this information through the good use of audio visual aids in conjunction with the presented learning materials. Education experts and experienced teachers agree that the use of audio visual aids helps the students whose teachers constantly and gainfully employ those materials because they tend to perform better academically than those whose teachers rarely employ audio visual aids in their teaching.
According to Nwosu (2005), nurse tutors that have audio visual aids in their schools lack knowledge on how to use them while teaching so as to achieve a desirable change in behaviour of learners. For instance, some teachers in some Schools of Nursing in Nigeria today lack knowledge on how to operate computer which can be used to make teaching and learning both interesting and effective.In enumerating the factors that could be responsible for varying intra-and inter-school/academic achievement, Ukeje (2009) listed four important factors including the acute scarcity of audio visual aids which he said constrained educational systems from responding more fully to new demands. He claimed that, in order to do their part in meeting the crisis in education, educational systems will need audio visual aids that money can buy, they will need a fuller share of the nation’s manpower, not merely to carry on the present work of education, but to raise its quality, efficiency and productivity. They will need buildings, equipments and more audio visual aids.
According to Adjai (2005), there is pleasure in teaching job when audio visual aids are used and intended results are realized. They make what would have been an abstract idea concrete and brightens what would have been dull lesson. When audio visual materials are used, the lessons are always interesting and highly enjoyed by the students. This carries success with it and creates a lasting impression in the students. Since the use of audio visual materials in teaching and learning in our Schools of Nursing would go along way in improving the academic performance of students, this study was designed to investigate the availability and utilization of audio visual aids among the nurse educators in Schools of Nursing in Anambra State, Nigeria.
Statement of the problem
The ability of the audiovisual aids to provide effective teaching and learning is being continually undermined and called into question.The use of audio visual aids for effective teaching and learning suffer in the hands of uninterested teachers and educational policy makers, who fail to recognize the importance of the use of audio visual aids in Schools of Nursing (Ofoefuna, 2006).
Inspite of the fact that audiovisual aids are the supportive input for any academic institution for teaching, learning and research, it is observed that various institutions’ managements are not providing adequate audio visual aids for their institutions (Flyner, 2002).Also, in some places where these teaching aids are available; the teachers do not put them into maximum use. The reason for this attitude may be because teachers engage themselves in so many other activities, with desire and haste of some teachers to cover the syllabus or scheme of work, instead of making their teaching more meaningful and imparting (Egbuna, 2010).
Furthermore, most schools lack funds and as a result, they find it difficult to purchase the audio visual aids.Generally, failure to use audio visual aids in teaching and learning results in lack of interests among the students. This affects the academic performance of the students. In the light of this, this study investigated the availability and utilization of audio visual aids among nurse educators in Schools of Nursing, in Anambra State.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study is to investigate the availability and utilization of audio visual aids among teachers in Schools of Nursing in Anambra State, Nigeria.
Objectives of the study
The specific objectives for this study were: To:
Determine the availability of audio visual aids to the teachers.
Determine the teacher ‘s level of utilization of audio visual aids
Identify the challenges teachers encounter in using audio visual aids
Identify the strategies to overcome the challenges encountered by teachers in using audio visual aids
There is no significant difference in the utilization of audio visual aids between male and female teachers.
There is no significant difference between teachers’ experience and their utilization of audio visual aids.
There is no significant difference between teachers’ ranks and their utilization of audio visual aids
The challenges encountered by the teachers have no significant influence on their utilization of audio visual aids.
Significance of the study
It is expected that findings from this project work could immensely offer valuable insights to the researchers in education, who are likely to use this research work as a reference material, to enable them develop the field of teaching-learning process.
The findings of the study will help to properly establish and place audio visual aid in its rightful position within the set up of the Schools of Nursing under research.
It will also help to identify availability or non-availability, use or non - use and inadequacies of audio visual aids in the areas to be covered by this study with a view of alerting the authorities on its implications.
Moreover, the data from the findings when presented to the regulatory body of Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria will enable them see the need for mandating all training schools to utilize audio visual aids in teaching and learning process. This will improve academic performance of students.
The study would enable the governments to provide adequate facilities, equipments and well equipped libraries to schools. This will go a long way to facilitate teaching and learning in Schools of Nursing.
To the educational administrators, this study will serve as a guide to design appropriate in-service training programmes to update teachers’ skills in knowledge and use of audio visual aids.
Finally, the findings from the study will provide opportunities for teachers to develop proactive approach towards the use of audio visual aids. It will also enable the School of Nursing teachers to always use audio visual aids to give concrete representation of abstract ideas and then motivate the students to make their own audio visual aids that will lead them through the lesson.
Scope of the study
The study was delimited to male and female nurse educators in Schools of Nursing in Anambra State. It was delimited to determining whether teachers use audio-visual aids in teaching and learning, whether audio-visual aids are available in Schools of Nursing in Anambra State and the challenges teachers encounter in using audio-visual aids.
Operational definition of terms
Availability of audio visual aids refers to the audio visual materials which the school authority is able to locate and afford.
Teachers’ use of audio visual aids refers to the teachers’ easy manipulation of the audio visual aids in a teaching situation.
Audio visual aids are those facilities, equipments and materials like computer, power point, television, model, specimen, white board, etc which are utilized by a teacher to illustrate, emphasize and explain a lesson with the intention of making the lesson clearer to the learner.
School of Nursing is a type of educational institution or part thereof, providing education and training to become a fully qualified nurse.
Nurse educator is a nurse who designs, implements, evaluates and revises academic and continuing education programmes for nurses..