THE ANTIPLASMODIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM: AGARICUS BISPORUS ON PLASMODIUMBERGHEIIN ALBINO MICE


THE ANTIPLASMODIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM: AGARICUS BISPORUS ON PLASMODIUMBERGHEIIN ALBINO MICE  

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

A mushroom (or toadstool) is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.The standard for the name "mushroom" is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus; hence the word "mushroom" is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) on the underside of the cap(Smith et al., 2015). "Mushroom" also describes a variety of other gilled fungi, with or without stems, therefore the term is used to describe the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface.

Forms deviating from the standard morphology usually have more specific names, such as "bolete", "puffball", "stinkhorn", and "morel", and gilled mushrooms themselves are often called "agarics" in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their order Agaricales. By extension, the term "mushroom" can also designate the entire fungus when in culture; the thallus (called a mycelium) of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms; or the species itself(Smith et al., 2015).

Mushrooms are well known all over the world and the edible ones have been considered as functional foods. They serve to enrich food as supplements and they provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients they contain (Smith et al., 2015). 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Globally, millions of deaths attributed to malaria are being recorded. The disease constitutes a huge epidemiologic burden in Africa and continues and continues to cripple the economic development in the region (Trudell and Ammirati, 2009). In Nigeria, the disease is responsible for 60% outpatient visits to health facilities, 30% childhood death, 25% of death in children under one year and 11% maternal death (Philips, 2011). The financial loss due to malaria annually is estimated to be about 132 billion Naira in form of treatment costs, prevention, loss of man-hour, etc.; yet, it is a treatable and completely evitable disease(Philips, 2011). Malaria is endemic in Nigeria with 97% of the population of 170 million living in areas of high malaria risk and anestimated 3% living in malaria free highlands. Nigeria bearsup to 25% of the malarial disease burden in Africa, making this country with the highest malaria mortality (WHO, 2014).

The Global Fund (TGF)’s response in the fight against malaria in Nigeria is co-managed by the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP). Currently NMEP is implementing New Funding Model (NFM) of TGF which began in January 2015 (WHO, 2014). Implementation of malaria control interventions is broad-based and includes: Case Management; Integrated Vector Management; Special Interventions such as Intermittent Presumptive treatment with Sulphadoxine and Pyrimethamine; and other supportive interventions (WHO, 2014).

Edible mushrooms have been source of food to man, even before the for-knowledge of its nutritional content. It has served as major source of food in several African countries including Nigeria(Smith et al., 2015). However, its use as an antimalarial agent has not been documented. There is therefore, the need to assess the suppressive effect of the extract of this mushroom on albino mice.

1.3 Justification of the Research

Although the parasite responsible for P. falciparum malaria has been in existence for 50,000–100,000 years, the population size of the parasite did not increase until about 10,000 years ago, concurrently with advances in agriculture (Harper et al., 2011) and the development of human settlements. Close relatives of the human malaria parasites remain common in chimpanzees. Some evidence suggests that the P. falciparummalaria may have originated in gorillas (Prugnolle et al., 2011). References to the unique periodic fevers of malaria are found throughout recorded history (Cox,2013). The advent of multiple drug resisitant malaria led to the continuous effort to curb the menace it has created through the use of all possible approaches for its eradication. However, P. berghei is used as a model organism for the investigation of human malaria because of its similarity to the Plasmodium species which cause human malaria. P. berghei has a very similar life-cycle to the species that infect humans, and it causes disease in mice which has signs similar to those seen in human malaria. Importantly, P. berghei can be genetically manipulated more easily than the species which infect humans, making it a useful model for research into Plasmodium genetics.

In several aspects the pathology caused by P. berghei in mice differs from malaria caused by P. falciparum in humans. In particular, while death from P. falciparum malaria in humans is most frequently caused by the accumulation of red blood cells in the blood vessels of the brain, it is unclear to what extent this occurs in mice infected with P. berghei (Craig et al., 2012). Instead, in P. berghei infection, mice are found to have an accumulation of immune cells in brain blood vessels (Craig et al., 2012). This has led some to question the use of P. berghei infections in mice as an appropriate model of cerebral malaria in humans (Craig et al., 2012).

Although the decreased sensitivity of malaria parasites to an antimalarial drug was first reported about a century ago in association with quinine, the term drug-resistant malaria was rarely used; resistance was not considered a major problem until the late 1950s, after chloroquine resistance emerged. Historically, chloroquine was widely used as the standard first-line drug against P. falciparum. Resistance was first detected on the Thailand–Cambodia and the Venezuela–Colombia borders, near areas where chloroquinated salt was used for malaria control, forcing the affected countries to begin switching to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) in the 1970s. Resistance to SP developed quickly, again on the Thailand–Cambodia border. The spread of chloroquine and SP resistance to other parts of Asia and as far as Africa is well documented (Plowe, 2009). Several articles have been published on the use of various extracts with antiplasmodial properties to eradicate Plasmodium falciparumfrom the blood stream of induced albino mice. Hence, a need for further review of the work to ascertain the effects of these compounds with antiplasmodial activities.

1.4 Aim and Objectives

1.4.1 Aim

To determine the antiplasmodial activity of extracts of edible mushroom:Agaricus bisporus on Plasmodiumbergheiin albino mice.

1.4.2 Objectives

The specific objectives of this study were to:

a. assess the analytical components of edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry (GCMS).

b. determinethe antiplasmodial activity of edible mushroomextract:(Agaricus bisporus) on Plasmodium berghei.

c. determine the effect of mushroom extract on the temperature and weight of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.

d. compare the effect of aqueous and alcoholic mushroom extract on malaria parasitemia.

1.5Research Hypotheses (Null)

a. There is no significant difference in the analytical components of Agaricus bisporusextractand a known standard drug for Plasmodium berghei.

b. There is no significant difference in the antiplasmodial activity of Agaricus bisporus extract on Plasmodium bergheianda known standard drug for Plasmodium berghei.

c. Agaricus bisporusextracthas no significant difference in effect on the temperature and weight of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.

d. Aqueous and alcoholic Agaricus bisporusextracthave no significant difference on malaria parasitemia.

.

THE ANTIPLASMODIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM: AGARICUS BISPORUS ON PLASMODIUMBERGHEIIN ALBINO MICE



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.ORG
Researchwap.org is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.org guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.org is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.org" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.