EVALUATION OF PATIENTS’ WILLINGNESS TO PARTICIPATE IN MEDICAL RESEARCH IN UBTH AND CENTRAL HOSPITAL; A COMPARATIVE STUDY


EVALUATION OF PATIENTS’ WILLINGNESS TO PARTICIPATE IN MEDICAL RESEARCH IN UBTH AND CENTRAL HOSPITAL; A COMPARATIVE STUDY

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

Research is very important in finding solution to contemporary problems. The importance of research cannot be overemphasized as very many discoveries have been made via research and through this same important tool, many more breakthrough will be made in all human endeavor, the health system inclusive as there are still many diseases that defy cure currently and are at best, managed. But the participation of patients in the above exercise is no less important. The aim of this study was evaluation of patients’ willingness to participate in research in both the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) and Central Hospital, Benin City (CHB). It also to compare factors that encouraged and discouraged patients’ participation in medical research.

SAMPLING METHODOLOGY

The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study where data was obtained via interviewer administered questionnaires. A total of 855 questionnaires were analysed using statistical package for scientific solutions (SPSS 20.0). Appropriate measures of statistical significance were utilized were p-value was set at p= 0.05.

RESULTS

A total of 855(65%) had heard about medical research.47.1% of respondents who have heard about medical research had participated.91.7% of the respondents were willing to consent to clinical research. Among the 65% of respondents who knew about medical research, 188 (33.9%) were influenced by trust in the researcher,158(28.4%)  by aim and objective of research,125(22.5%),when given by doctor,159(24.6%),when there are no adverse effect and 146(26.3%) for other reasons. Also among the 65% of respondents who knew about research,273 (50.1%) were discouraged when it involved serious adverse effect,251(45.1%) when it is time consuming,127(22.9%) by mistrust of the researcher and 146(26.3%) by other reasons.

CONCLUSION

Majority of the respondents were willing to consent to research in both UBTH and Central Hospital, Benin City. The factors that influenced patient willingness to participate in medical research were the aims and objective of the research, less time requirement, absence of adverse effects, researchers trust, when it is given by doctor and transportation fare. The discouraging factors were mistrust of researchers, time consuming research, adverse effect, uninteresting research topic and absence of monetary reward.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………………...i

DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………...........ii

DECLARATION……………………………………………………………………..........iii

CERTIFICATION….............................................................................................................iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………….............v

TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………..vi

LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………………...ix

LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………...........x

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………........xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………...1

1.1    BACKGROUND OF STUDY

1.2.PROBLEM STATEMENT         

1.3 JUSTIFICATION

1.4. AIM AND OBJECTIVES

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………7

2.1Medical research

2.1.1 Historical perspective.

2.1.2Patient Medical research

2.1.3Patients exposure in medical research.

2.2 Reasons why patient partakes in research.

2.2.1Trust.

2.2.2Serious illness.

2.2.3 Research ethics.

2.2.4Request

2.2.5Absence of side effects.

2.2.6 Aim of research

2. 3.0 Determinants of patients’ participation in research.

2. 3.1 Positive determinants of patients’ participation in research.

2.3.2 Level of education/ patient enlightenment.

2.4.0Negative determinants of patients’ participation in research.

2.4.2 Greater risk.

2.4.3 Side effects and fear of the unknown.

2.4.4 Time-consuming research program.

2.4.5 Race and patients’ participation in research.

2.4.6 Preference for a form/ type of treatment.

2.4.7 Hospital site.

2.4.8 Physician involvement.

2.4.9 Other determinants influencing patients’ participation in research.

2.5 Human involvement n cloning.

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS…………………………………...17

3.1 STUDY AREA

3.2STUDY DESIGN: A comparative descriptive cross-sectional study design was used for

3.3STUDY DURATION: The study was carried out within one year, between

3.4 STUDY POPULATION: This comprised of medical, surgical, and obstetrics and

3.5SELECTION CRITERIA:

3.51 INCLUSION CRITERIA: Both Medical, Surgical,Psychiatric and Obstetric and

3.52 EXCLUSSION CRITERIA: Those patients who were too ill to fill the questionnaires.

3.6 SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION: In calculation of the sample size, a prevalence rate

3.7 SAMPLING METHOD: A stratified sampling method was used and the categories of

3.8 DATAMANAGEMENT:                               

3.81 TOOL FOR DATA COLLECTION

3.82 MEHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

3.83 DATA PRESENTATION

3.9 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS……………………………………………………….........23

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS…………..43

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………….........50

APPENDIX…………………………………………………………………………..........57

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTIO

1.1         BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Research is discovery of new facts, enunciation of new principles, or fresh interpretation of the facts or principles. It is a systematic Investigation to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge1. Research it is systemic and organized wayof finding better answers to questions. It is a step in searching for truth and the basic function of research is to answer why and how of a phenomenon. It also involve searching answers to what, when, how much, etc. All thesequestions have relevance to any discipline but Medicine seems tohave special appetite for such enquiries. The goal of medical researchis to improve health, and the purpose is to learn how systems in human body work, why we get sick, and how to get back to health and stay fit.It is a systematic process to better determine ethology, patho-physiology, diagnosis, therapy and prognosis. Research is the very foundation of improved medical care1.

 The Nazi physicians conducted harmful research on unwilling human subjects during World War II and were unprecedented in their scope and the degree of harm and Suffering to which human beings were subjected “Medical experiments” were performed on thousands of concentration camp prisoners and included deadly studies andtortures such as injecting people with Gasoline and live viruses, immersing people in ice water, and forcing people to ingestpoisons2.

The rights of the subjects were violated by physicians. The actions were condemned as crimes against humanity. Permissible Medical Experiments were to be carried out and this becameknown as theNuremberg Codeand was the first international code of researchethics. The code stated the basic principles that must be observed in order to satisfy moral, ethical, and legal concepts in the conduct of human subject research2.

The approach of patient participation in medical decision- making has been discussed openly in Germany. However, the first publications in German3only discussed the approach conceptually. Clinical trials fortheevaluation of patient participation in medical Decision making were primarily initiated through the research program of theFederal Ministry of Health4.

In 1999, theConference of German Health Ministers adopted the document‘‘Patient rights in Germany today’’. It is explicitly laid down that patients have the right to clear, expert and satisfactory education and   counselling in order to explain the usage and risks of diagnostics, and advantages and risks of the treatment or non-treatment options. Physicians must be sure that patients have understood the information. It is pre-assigned that patients must be informed about the type and Possibility of different risks and their relation to recovery chances3.

Randomized controlled clinical trials are the most rigorous way to determine treatment efficacy.Recruitment into clinical trials, however, is notoriously difficult in general5, and surgical trials in particular face further obstacles to recruitment 6.  Low recruitment leads to poor statistical power to detect meaningful differences, subjecting participants to potentially risky interventions with no guarantee that their participation will lead to results of scientific value7. Investigators planning a Randomized controlled clinical trial mustensure that recruitment of subjects intothetrialwill be sufficient to achieve the study aims.

In addressing issues of trial recruitment, investigators have tried to Identify barriers to clinician andpatient participation8, to modify trialsto make them more palatable to clinicians and patients 9and to  assess differences between those patients who agree to participate in trialsand those who refuse10.

Demographic factors, such as gender, race, age and education level, have been associated in some studies with willingness to participate5.

1.2.PROBLEM STATEMENT        

Research withhuman subjects can occasionally result in a dilemma for investigators. When the goals of the research are designed to make major contributions to a field, such asimprovingthe understanding of a disease process or determining the efficacy of an intervention, investigators may perceive the outcomes of   their   studies to be more important than providing protections for individual participants in the research2.

Although it is understandable to focus on goals, our society values the rights and welfare of individuals. It is not considered ethical behaviour to use individuals solely as means to an end. The importance of demonstrating respect for research participants is reflected in the principles used to define ethical research and the regulations, policies, and guidance that describe the implementation of thoseprinciples2.us

It is becoming increasingly recognised that patients can make Valuable contributions to their health care safety11. However, while these interventions are well intentioned, a key issue is the lack of evidence on patients’ preferences to adhere to the advice and recommendations, namely how willing patients really are to take on such an active role12.  Patients were more willing to ask factual (eg, ‘How long will I be in hospital for?’)as opposed to challenging questions(eghave you washed your hands?’) particularly when interacting with a doctor .The research also highlighted the potential facilitating role of doctors: patients reported they would be more willing to ask challenging questions if they were instructed to by a doctor.In addition, previous research solely examined the potential effect that doctors could have on increasing patients’ willingness to participate. However, given patient involvement in safety is largely a function of patients’ interactions with different health care professionals12.

1.3 JUSTIFICATION

Available studies have showed that patients value safety, convenience, oversight and open communication    in research. However they were put off by some aspects that are valued by health care professionals. Educating the public about research may improve participation.

This study was conducted in order to evaluate factors that will improve Patients’ willingness to participate in research and to assess patients’ awareness of medical research. Also to educate and encourage patients that they are essential to the conduct of research intended to improve human health in UBTH. As such,the relationship between investigators and human subjects is critical and should be based on honesty, trust andrespect.

.

EVALUATION OF PATIENTS’ WILLINGNESS TO PARTICIPATE IN MEDICAL RESEARCH IN UBTH AND CENTRAL HOSPITAL; A COMPARATIVE STUDY



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.ORG
Researchwap.org is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.org guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.org is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.org" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.