In the past with the necessary of metals it always seems impossible to join two metals together with grooving riveting, this idea leads to alternative of finding a lasting solution to the problem. This brought about the idea of a welding machine with a well laminated core and coil wound together to form a high rated transformer which is immersed in a can of oil.

Welding is the most economical and efficient way to join metals permanently. It is the only way of joining two or more pieces of metal permanently to make a single piece. Welding is vital to our economy.

It is even said that over (50%) of the gross nation product of the industries is related to welding in one way or the other. Welding ranks high economy industrial process and involve more science and variable than those involved in any other industrial process.

The electrode is either a rod that simply carried current between the tip of the tong and the work, or a rod or wire that melts and supplies, fill metal to the joint.

The basic arc welding circuit is an alternating current (A.C) or direct current (D.C) power source connected by a “hot” cable to an electrode, when the electrode is positioned close to the work piece, an arc is created across the gap between the metal and the hot cable electrode. An ionized column of gas developed to complete the circuit.


Arc welding did not come into practice until much later. In 1802, “Vasily Petrov” discovered the continuous electric Arc and subsequently proposed its possible practical applications including welding. The French electrical inventor “Auguste Demeritens” produced first carbon arc touch, patented in 1881, which was successfully used for welding leading in the manufacturer of lead-acid batteries. In 1881-1882 a Russian inventor “Nikolai Bernardo” created the electric arc welding method for steel known as carbon arc welding, using carbon electrode. (Lincoln Electric 1994), the procedure hand book of arc welding, Cleceland Ohiho Lincoln Electric ISBN 99949-25-82-2. The advance in arc welding contacted with the inventor of metal electrode in the late 19th century by a Russian, “Nikolai Slavyanov” 1888 and an American, “C.L coffin”. Around 1900 A.P strotimenger released in Britain a coated metal electrode which gave more stable arc, in 1905 Russian scientist “Vladimir Mitevich” proposed the usage of three phase electric arc for welding.

In 1919 the alternating current welding was invented by “C.J Hoslag” not become popular for another decade. Competing welding process such as resistance welding and oxy-fuel welding were developed during this especially the later, faced stiff competition from arc welding especially after metal coving (known as flux) for the electrode to stabilized the arc and shield the base material from impurities continued to be developed.

The arc welding was not common until during world war I, welding started to be used in ship building in Great Brittan in place of riveted steel plates. The Americans also became more of accepting of the new technology when the process allowed them to repair their ships quickly after a German attack in the New York Harbor at the beginning of the war. Even in the good old days, Nigeria make use of forgoing whereby two pieces of metal are join together by heating them to a high temperature ant then hammering them together (forge welding).

In 1919 the British ship builder “Cammel Laird” started construction of merchant ship, the fillager, with entire welding hill, she was launched in 1921.

During the following decade, further advanced allowed for the welding of reactive such as aluminum and magnesium, this in conjunction with the development in automatic welding, alternating current, flux fed a major expansion of arc welding during the 1930’s and then during world war two after decades of development, was finally perfected in 1941 and gas metal arc welding followed in 1948, allowing for fast welding of non-ferrous material but required more expensive shielding gases. Using a consumable electrode and a carbondioxide atmosphere as shielding gas. It quickly becoming to most popular arc welding process , in 1957. The flux cored arc welding process debuted in which the self-shielded wire automatic equipment, resulting in greatly increased welding speeds. In that same year plastic arc welding was invented. Electro slag welding as released in1958 and was followed by it cousin, electro-gas welding in 1961.


This write up is fully based on the method and ways of carrying out welding work and construction of the machine. Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins material usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from the lower temperature metal. Joining techniques such as brazing or soldering which do not melt the base metal. The value of welding as a standard method of joining metal was not fully appreciated before world war one, then because of the need for speed of production in every metal using and metal fabrication industry, the order of welding processes came on their own. During and after world war two, the new welding method were developed, which further increased speed and facilitates the joining of the many special purpose alloys that were developed during this period.

Limited in its early application to small or less important parts, welding in the second half of the 20th century was employed in fabrication too numerous to mention, such as ship, locomotives, rail and cars. The petroleum industry is a classic example. The cutting edge of the bit used to drill on wells consist of a hard weld metal fused to backing transportation to and from refinery is via all welded transport iron material.

Whenever a piece of apparatus is intended to contain a liquid or gas, welding is the logical method of fabrication. As such, it has almost completely replaced other method. Welding as of course by no means of confined to wide application where leak tightness is involved. In the conventional body on frame automobile, there are some 8,000 to 10,000 resistance welds and up to 40ft of arc welding.

Building and bridges can be erected y welding with a saving of (10%) to (20%) in the amount of steel requires. The proportion of structures erected by welding was increasing in the second half of the 20th century and trend appeared likely to continue.

The processes of welding may be divided into four processes

1. Forge welding

2. Arc welding

3. Gas welding

4. Resistance welding

Arc welding will be expansiated on, in accordance to the title of the project.


⦁ To find alternative replacement replacement for the imported models.

⦁ To make it affordable at relatively cheap price.

⦁ To further understand the fabrication or construction/working principle of the machine.

⦁ To acquire basic understanding of operating and welding of transformer.


The machine is designed to be supplied with an input ranging from 220volt to 240 volt. A good weld must be strong as parent metal. The scope of welding process in the modern industries has taken a greater dimension more than the previous year. Today the science and act of welding involves a wide range of process and procedure applicable to materials of any thickness and shape. These may range from more a very thin electronic component to a large machine and structure. The arc produces a temperature of about 3600oc at the top armed melts part of the metal being welded and part of electrode. This produces a pool of molten metal that cools and solidifies behind electrode as it moved along the joint.

This electric arc welding machine is a heavy duty machine which is capable of welding 12 gauges of electrodes while in operation.




The project is a form of providing student with appreciable skills p4actically designed to expose or equip them with real working operation of machine and how they are being constructed and a better understanding of one’s own career goals and for the progress of the nation.

The project seemed easy and simple but later on turn to be useful and interesting project for Engineering students.

With all the problems faced and solved in this project has improved my skill and experience in any of such project.  In spite of this, whosoever through this project report and practical (welding machine) will observe and know that a lot of practical works has undergone during the construction.  Therefore, to be an engineering student and professional engineer, some aspect of practical work is necessary.

Also, this project will contribute to solving some of the problem and challenges confronting most engineering companies industry land workshops in the country concerning welding.

I thank the school authority who made this project construction as an integral part of education more importantly as one of the ways to the technological development of the country.

Finally, this project is the star-point for me in the field of mechanical engineering and a great expectation for tomorrow.


Considering many challenges that comes across student in the course of their project of which am a victim, made me to give the following recommendation:

Financial problem is the number one major problem that affect us during the construction.  Therefore to encourage student to carry out many projects, the school authority should endeavour to assist in some aspect of student project such as financial issue, adequate and sufficient materials should be provided.

Also, I recommend that the school authority should buy more books, journals and catalogues treating relevant topics given to students as project works and will also provide necessary facts or information when needed.




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