INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS NEEDED BY BUSINESS STUDIES TEACHERS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study investigated the Information and Communication Technology skills needed by Business Studies Teachers in Junior Secondary Schools in Adamawa State. To achieve this broad objective, four research questions were developed and answered while three research hypotheses were formulated and tested. Survey research design was used to carry out this study. The population for the study consisted of 129 business studies teachers from four education zones of the State. Since the population was sizeable there was no sampling. The instrument for data collection was structured questionnaire which was face validated by three experts from department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka. To determine the internal consistency of the instrument, Cronbach alpha method was used and a reliability coefficient of 0.77 was obtained. Data for the study was collected with the help of four research assistants. Data collected was analyzed using mean, standard deviation, t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The mean was used to answer the research questions. Standard Deviation was used to determine how close or otherwise are the respondents’ opinion to one another and to the mean. The null hypothesis one was tested using t-test while hypotheses 2 and 3 were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P<0.05 level of significance. Presentation and analysis of data were made by the use of tables. The result revealed that business studies teachers needed all the computer appreciation, word processing, the use of internet and data processing skills identified; there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of responses of male and female business studies teachers on the listed ICT skill needed by teachers for effective instruction; there was no significant difference in the mean responses of business studies teachers according to their education zones on the ICT skills needed, there was no significant difference in the mean responses of business studies teachers according to their educational qualifications on the ICT skills needed. It was recommended that Institutions of higher learning where business studies teachers are being trained should fully equip business education department with ICT gadgets so as to give them necessary training that would enable the teachers have full knowledge and skills they would transfer to their students. To increase professional development opportunities, business studies teachers need to be retrained on the use of ICTs, this will help them to integrate and utilize ICTs in junior secondary schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Approval Page- - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - - vi
List of Tables - - - - - - - - - - vii
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - viii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study - - - - - - - - 1
Statement of the Problem - - - - - - - - 6
Purpose of the Study- - - - - - - - - - 7
Significance of the Study- - - - - - - - - 8
Research Questions- - - - - - - - - - 9
Hypothesis- - - - - - - - - - - 10
Delimitation- - - - - - - - - - - 10
CHAPTER 11: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual Framework - - - - - - - - 11
Information and Communication Technology- - - - - - 11
ICT Skills- - - - - - - - - - - 16
Computer Appreciation Skills- - - - - - - - 18
Word Processing Skills - - - - - - - - - 23
The use of Internet Skills - - - - - - - - 29
Data Processing Skills - - - - -
(vi) - - - - 33
Theoretical Framework - - - - - - - - 38
Psychomotor Theory - - - - - - - - - 39
Competency Theory - - - - - - - - - 40
Skill Acquisition Theory - - - - - - - - - 31
Experiential Theory- - - - - - - - - - 42
Review of Related Empirical Study- - - - - - - - 43
Summary of Review of Related Literature - - - - - - 48
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design- - - - - - - - - - 50
Area of Study-- - - - - - - - - - 50
Population of the Study- - - - - - - - - 51
Instrument for Data Collection- - - - - - - - 51
Validation of the Instrument- - - - - - - - - 52
Reliability of the Instrument- - - - - - - - - 52
Method of Data Collection- - - - - - - - - 53
Method of Data Analysis- - - - - - - - - 53
CHAPTER IV: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
Research Question 1 - - - - - - - - - 55
Research Question 2 - - - - - - - - - 56
Research Question 3 - - - - - - - - - 57
Research Question 4 - - - - - - - - - 59
Null Hypothesis 1 - - - - - - - - - 60
Null Hypothesis 2 - - - - - - - - - 61
Null Hypothesis 3 - - - - - - - - - 61
Findings - - - - - - - - - - 62
Discussion of Findings- - - - - - - - - 65
CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Re-statement of the Problem- - - - - - - - - 69
Summary of Procedure Used-- - - - - - - - 70
Summary of Findings- - - - - - - - - 71
Conclusions - - - - - - - - - - 71
Recommendations - - - - - - - - - 72
Suggestions for further Study- - - - - - - - 73
References - - - - - - - - - - 74
Appendix A: Population for the Study Appendix B: Instrument for Data Collection Appendix C: Result of the Reliability Test Appendix D: Result of Data Analyzed
LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Pages
1. Means and Standard Deviation of the Responses of the Respondents on ICT Skills Needed by Business Studies Teachers in
Computer Appreciation- - - - - - - - 55
2. Means and Standard Deviation of the Responses of the Respondents on ICT Skills Needed by Business Studies Teachers in
Word Processing - - - - - - - - - 56
3. Means and Standard Deviation of the Responses of the Respondents on the ICT Skills Needed by Business Studies
Teachers in the Use of Internet - - - - - - 57
4. Means and Standard Deviation of the Responses of the Respondents on ICT Skills Needed by Business Studies
Teachers in Data Processing - - - - - - - 59
5. Result of t-test Analysis of the Responses of Male and Female Business Studies Teachers on the ICT Skills Needed by Business Studies Teachers in Junior Secondary
Schools in Adamawa State - - - - - - - - 60
6. Result of Analysis of Variance of the Responses of Business Studies Teachers according to Education Zones (Yola, Numan, Gombi and Mubi) on the ICT Skills
Needed by Business Studies Teachers in Junior Secondary Schools
in Adamawa State - - - - - - - - 61
7. Result of Analysis of Variance of the Responses of Business Studies Teachers according to Educational Qualification (NCE/OND,
B.Sc. (ED)/HND and Postgraduate qualifications) on the ICT Skills Needed by Business Studies Teachers in Junior Secondary Schools
in Adamawa State - - - - - - - - 61
Background of the Study
There has been increasing interest in introducing innovations such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into the teaching and learning of business studies especially when the Nigeria Education and Research Development Council (NERDC) introduced a modern curriculum into the school system. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) involves the use of computers and other electronic devices to process information. Nworgu (2008) stated that ICT refers to a whole range of facilities or technologies involved in information processing and electronic communication to be handled with skills and expertise, for effective achievement and realization of its potentials in Education. In the view of Valasidou (2008), ICT is an innovative instrumental tool that enables the educators to modify the teaching and learning processes in order to increase students’ interest. Brown (2009) explained that ICT is considered very crucial for the achievement of various educational objectives in terms of expanding the citizenry access to education at all levels and improving the quality of teaching and learning process.
In the explanation of Daniels (2002), the use of Information and Communication Technologies in the educative process has been divided into two broad categories: ICTs for education and ICTs in education. ICTs for education refers to the development of ICT specifically for teaching learning purposes, while the ICTs in education involves the adoption of
general components of ICTs in the teaching learning process. Effiong (2005) emphasized that
ICT use in school curriculum depends highly on the teachers who will use ICT to teach the students. This requires that teachers should have the ability to incorporate ICT into teaching and
learning. Okereke (2008) noted that, application of ICT to teaching and learning makes instructions more effective and productive. In this regard ICT is viewed as innovations that enable business studies teachers facilitate teaching and learning of business studies.
Business studies is an academic subject that helps students to be exposed to realities of business practices. The subject is designed to introduce students to the foundational knowledge of the principles and practices of business. Okute (2008) opined that business studies is the fundamental subject which has to do with acquisition, conservation and expedition of wealth. Osuala (2004) stated that business studies help the students to make informed decisions in the everyday business of living. Obi (2005), explained that business studies prepares students for business career or enables those in that career become more efficient and advance to higher business positions. In the view of NERDC (2007), business studies will enable the students to:
⦁ acquire the basic knowledge of business studies;
⦁ develop the basic skills in office occupation;
⦁ prepare for further training in business studies;
⦁ have basic skills with which to start a life of work;
⦁ have basic skills for personal use in future;
⦁ relate the knowledge and skills they have acquired to the national economy.
These objectives can be achieved through teachers’ effectiveness, who is the implementers of curriculum.
A teacher is an individual who is trained in pedagogy and teaching areas of a particular subject to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes to students in an institution. According to Olaitan, Alaribe, and Nwobu (2009), a teacher is a person who communicates knowledge, skills and attitudes to someone in a school. Okute and Agomuo (2010) noted that a teacher is a
facilitator of learning; who helps students to realize their full potentials educationally, emotionally, and socially in career selection and transition. Garba and Dambe (2007) defined a teacher as one who possesses practical and theoretical knowledge of his vocation, has clear understanding of the students he teachers, and ensures that he increases in the knowledge of his field at all times. There are male and female business studies teachers. These teachers are trained in different higher institutions of learning where they obtain various qualifications. In this study, a business studies teacher is someone who is trained in pedagogical areas of business education and is charged with the responsibilities of imparting acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes of business studies to students in junior secondary schools.
Secondary school is the school for young people between the ages of 11, 16 and 18. National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) defined secondary education as the education children received after primary education and before the tertiary stage. Secondary schools are divided into junior and senior sections. The junior secondary school is both pre-vocation and academic. The ability of business studies teachers to teach students ICT depend on the level of ICT skills possessed.
Skill is a person’s ability in performing a given task well as a result of training and practice. Skill as viewed by Soanes (2001) is the ability to do something well especially, as a result of long practice. Obi (2005), defined skill as manual dexterity acquired through repetitive performance of operations. Osinem and Nwaoji (2005) stated that, skill is the proficiency displayed by someone in the performance of a given task. ICT Skill is the ability required by business studies teachers for effective instruction to junior secondary school students in Adamawa State.
Adamawa is a state in north eastern Nigeria established in 1991 with its capital in Yola. The state occupies about 36,917 square kilometers. There are 21 local government areas in Adamawa State which are divided into four education zones. In Adamawa state, new curriculum in business studies has been put in place by the government to replace the old one. The new curriculum contains some component of ICT such as computer appreciation, word processing, data processing, and the use of internet which were absent in the old curriculum of business studies.
Computer appreciation entails the general understanding of the basic building blocks of the computer systems, literacy in operating the computer and using the window interface called window explore and other similar interfaces. Azuka (2000) explained that keyboarding should be emphasized along with the traditional typing; the author identified closer relationship between them likewise word processing, data processing and the use of the internet.
Word processing is the application of computer for manipulating text-based documents; the electronic equivalent of paper, pen, typewriter, eraser, and most likely, dictionary and thesaurus (Encarta, 2009). According to Agomuo (2005), word processing can be likened to a typewriter inside a computer in that it incorporates all the duties of a typewriter which basically are: the ability to type and produce text on paper, store and manipulate text in documents and get printed copies. But when using computers, it deviates a little from the common typewriter. There is the enter key replacing the carrier movement and there are commands (simple ones) for paragraph, indent, spacing and so on. In addition, one can: store the document for future reference or use; make corrections to the documents very conveniently; format your documents to a wide variety of specification; automate some functions such as page numbering, generation of indexes; check the spelling of text in your document for correctness; and have greater control
over page layout attribute such as margin and so on. Other area where computer is most useful in daily activities is in the use of the internet and data processing.
The internet is a computer-based global information system (Comer, 2009). It is composed of many interconnected computer networks. Each network may link tens, hundreds, or even thousands of computers, enabling them to share information. The Internet has made it possible for people all over the world to communicate with one another effectively, inexpensively and to have free access to useful data for further processing.
Data processing deals with the analysis and organization of data by the repeated use of one or more computer programmes (Kogge, 2009). Data processing is used extensively in business, and in all areas in which computers are used such as education, to process data educationally by the teachers and other education administrators. The researcher observed that business studies teachers in the state have some difficulties in teaching the ICT component of the curriculum; therefore, they need improvement.
Improvement means change for something better. Improvement, in the explanation of Robinson (2006) is the development of circumstances in which something is lacking to better standard or quality than before. In this study, improvement is viewed as the act of making the level of skills acquired by business studies teachers in ICT better. For business studies teachers to improve in their teaching of the ICT components in the curriculum they need to upgrade their skills.
Need in the view of Chuta (1992) is something required to fill an existing essential gap. Hornby (2005) defined need as something required because it is essential or very important. Olaitan, Nwachukwu, Igbo, Onyemachi and Ekong (1999) explained that need is a requirement deemed necessary for effectiveness in an occupation. Need is the ICT skills required by business
studies teachers to meet a target standard of effective instruction. This need can be obtained through assessment.
Assessment is a process of estimating the worth, quality or effectiveness of a programme or instruction. Walter (2009) stated that assessment is the process of finding or deciding the amount, value, quality or importance of a programme or teachers instruction in a teaching- learning process. Assessment is the process of determining the skills need of business studies teachers in ICT for effective instruction.
In this study, need is the identification of the value that calls for retraining of business studies teachers in the areas of ICT incorporated into business studies curriculum to enable them improve their instruction to students in business studies in junior secondary schools in Adamawa State. To assist the business studies teachers in the area of study, it becomes important to retrain these teachers through intervention programmes to update their knowledge, skills and attitudes for effective instruction. Therefore, it is necessary to determine ICT skills needed by business studies teachers for effective instruction in junior secondary schools in Adamawa State.
Statement of the Problem
In Adamawa State, new curriculum in business studies has been put in place by the government to replace the old one. The new curriculum contains some component of ICT such as computer appreciation, word processing, the use of internet and data processing, which were absent in the old curriculum of business studies. The researcher observed that most business studies teachers in junior secondary schools in the state have some difficulties in teaching the ICT component of the curriculum.
The present business studies teachers are those that were trained and had been working in school system many years ago particularly before the introduction of modern technologies in teaching and learning of business studies. These teachers were not trained with modern ICT technologies and facilities. This suggests that the training they received seems to be irrelevant to the present curriculum because of technological changes taking place in work places where the students will find themselves after graduation. The inefficiency of business studies teachers in imparting ICT skills to junior secondary school students has been noticed in the students’ inability to do well in work places. Ademiluyi (2007) observed that most business studies students do not have the ability to succeed in private enterprise.
The researcher observed that many junior secondary school students after graduation find it difficult to establish and manage small businesses, particularly those who had no opportunity for further training. Those who tried to work in business centres where information is processed with modern technologies found it difficult to manipulate computers and other ICT equipment. Olufemi and Onyenu (2010) affirmed that the influence of technologies has rendered manual skills inadequate for the world of work while creating needs for new sophisticated skills. Therefore, it is necessary to determine ICT skills needed by business studies teachers for effective instruction in junior secondary schools in Adamawa State.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the Information and Communication Technology skills needed by business studies teachers in junior secondary schools in Adamawa State. Specifically, the study sought to determine:
1. ICT skills needed by business studies teachers in computer appreciation
2. ICT skills needed by business studies teachers in word processing,
3. ICT skills needed by business studies teachers in the use of Internet,
4. ICT skills needed by business studies teachers in data processing.
Significance of the Study
Learning new skills such as ICT and transferring skills already learnt by the teachers is the key to quality education in a rapidly changing technological environment. The findings of this study will be beneficial to business studies teachers, junior secondary school students, school administrators, government, and curriculum planners at teachers’ preparation stage and fellow researchers with keen interest in ICT skills needed by business studies teachers for effective and quality instructional delivery.
Business studies teachers will find the study useful. The findings of the study will enable the teachers understand ICT skills they needed and their importance. They will have first hand information on ICT skills they are required to acquire in order to face the challenges of knowledge update through seminars, workshops and conferences. Business studies teachers will know the vacuums of ICT skills they need to fill up in their academic lives and timely too, to remain relevant in their profession. Also, this will help to further equip them for better service delivery in teaching and coordinating the conduct of the students during teaching and learning process.
Junior secondary school students will also benefit from the result of this study. The study will help them to be better informed on the relevant ICT skills they need to acquire. They will also know the level of skills they currently posses and seek to fill any gap/vacuum created.
The result of the findings will be of immense benefit to school administrators and the state government. It will provide information that will help them to see the need for adequate provision of ICT facilities and materials, organizing workshops, and in-service training of teachers at the junior secondary school levels in the state. The state government will have better understanding of their participatory responsibilities in curriculum effectiveness.
The findings that will emanate from the study will provide wealth of information needed by curriculum planners for curriculum review and update at teachers’ preparation stage. It will help curriculum planners to be more comprehensive in scope, also, to give participatory opportunities for more learners’ achievement.
Finally, fellow researchers with keen interest in the identification of ICT skills needed by business studies teachers in computer appreciation, word processing, the use of internet and data processing will be helped to be more focused by the information that will be provided by the study. It will serve as a good starting point for any further meaningful research in this area of study.
Based on the specific purposes of the study, the following research questions will be answered by the study.
1. What are the ICT skills needed by business studies teachers in computer appreciation?
2. What are the ICT skills needed by business studies teachers in word processing?
3. What are the ICT skills needed by business studies teachers in the use of internet
4. What are the ICT skills needed by business studies teachers in data processing?
The following three null hypotheses were tested at P<0.05 level of significance
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female business studies teachers on ICT skills needed by business studies teachers in junior secondary schools in Adamawa State.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the business studies teachers according to their education zones, on the ICT skills needed by business studies teachers in junior secondary schools in Adamawa State.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the business studies teachers according to their educational qualifications, on ICT skills needed by business studies teachers in junior secondary schools in Adamawa State.
This study is intended to focus on ICT skills needed by business studies teachers. It is delimited in scope to cover computer appreciation skills, word processing skills, the use of internet skills, and data processing skills where business studies teachers need improvement. In terms of geographical area, this work will cover all the junior secondary schools that offer business studies in Adamawa State. The instrument for data collection will be restricted to questionnaire while the respondents will be restricted to business studies teachers in Adamawa State..