DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF TWIN PANEL METAL DOOR
Privacy and security are major essential human needs in various houses, offices etc. ability to afford quality door and high long life span at an affordable price to an average Nigerian has been a problem. This project is aimed at fabrication of a double panel door which is capable of giving maximum security to life and properties. The locally available material (mild steel) of different shapes, sizes and forms was used with available indigenous technology without compromising the standards.
The door consists of a small and a big door panel fastened together at each ends with the aid of hinges. The door has an eye viewer and a door knockers. Some of the material used in the fabrication of the project are square pipe of different sizes, flat bar, metal plate etc.
The material was measured and cut into several shapes and sizes before being joined together with the use of arc welding machine and electrode. The components part was welded together then grinding machine was used to remove the slugs. The overall dimension of the door is 2.60m2 which is equivalent to 4 by 7ft.
The overall weight of the door is 5194.5109KN (that is, weight of frame, weight of panel and weight of cross bar). The material used is mild steel which has special features such as mechanical features, physical features, corrosion resistance, chemical features and light in weight.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Objectives of the project 3
1.2 The need for Door 4
1.3 Types of Door 5
1.4 Justification 6
2.0 Literature Review 8
2.1 Analysis of Alternative Door 10
2.2 Choice of Alternative 12
2.3 Types of Metal 14
3.0 Materials and Construction Method 15
3.1 Design Calculation for Twin Panel Metal Door 17
3.1.2 Mass of the Frame 18
3.1.3 Weight of the Frame 19
3.2 The small Door 19
3.3 The Big Door 20
3.4 The Whole Door 21
4.0 Material Selection and Fabrication Details 24
4.1 Material Selection 24
4.2 Tools and Machine used 29
4.3 Safety Measure Taken During Construction 31
4.4 Precaution 32
4.4.1 Electric Shock 33
4.4.2 Heat and Fumes 33
4.4.3 Radiation from the Arc Welding 33
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 34
5.1 Conclusion 34
5.2 Recommendations 35
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Selection of Materials 22
Table 4.1 Fabrication Details 28
Door is a movable structure that is used as a means of closing off entrances for security purpose and also for the beautification of the area. In the ancient time, doors were not used and the people of then live comfortably in peace since there is trustworthiness among them, but as time goes on, some people gang up to become an enemy of progress, they started stealing another people’s properties and also terminate their live. This brings the people of those days to sit down and discover what is now known as door. During that time, doors were made of grasses or wood as a means of locking to secure their life and properties.
Wood as a material has a long history; it is the major component in the construction of doors. Doors made from wood is easy to construct and very cheap, but it can easily be destroyed when termites and other pests penetrate through it and it is not friendly with water and fire. The same thing happens to doors made from grasses, even worsen than that of the wooden door. As a result of these properties, wooden or grass door is not effective for security purpose as it can be easily breakthrough.
It was due to these problems that made engineers to develop and design more strong and effective door which is the metal door. Metal doors are in various design, these are: metal flush doors, flat sheet metal door etc.
The doors mentioned above give maximum protection to life and properties and meet people’s want.
But for more advancement, double panel door was employed by modern engineer into the family of existing doors to give maximum satisfaction. So the construction of this project is based on this double panel metal door. This door is divided into two (2) halves; the big door and the small door. It consists of the frame, the panel which is made of metal sheet, the stopper, the locking device, the hinges and the handle.
There are forces acting on door, these are: -
1. Contact Force: - This is a force which exists between surfaces in contact. It includes pushing and pulling forces, frictional forces and tension force in strings and wires.
2. Force Field: - Typical examples of force field include gravitational force, electrostatic force and magnetic force.
A gravitational force is the force which the earth exerts on every object on its surface.
1.1 Objectives of the Project
Some of the aims and objectives of this project are stated below:
i. To prepare students for future task as an engineer or technologist.
ii. To provide maximum security for life and properties.
iii. To ensure better life span for door with the use of quality materials.
iv. To promote and improve the method of door designs to a modern design.
v. To allow large objects to pass through the door at the same time by opening the two (2) panels.
vi. To expose the students to various machines used in the construction of twin panel metal door and to be technically involved.
1.2 The Need for Doors
The main reason and the need for doors include:
i. For security purpose
ii. To allow for privacy
iii. For beautification of houses, offices, shops etc.
iv. Regulation of access and noise reduction.
v. To control the physical atmosphere within a space by enclosing the air drafts so that interiors may be more effectively heated or cooled.
1.3 Types of Door
Doors are in various designs which are as follows:
⦁ Leather door
⦁ Wooden door
⦁ Flat sheet door
⦁ Glass metal door
⦁ Metal door
The metal door was made up of metals and it has different unit like frame (metal panel), panel (metal pipe and sheet metal), handle (metal bar), and hinges.
The twin panel metal door we constructed is divided into units, namely:
i. The panel unit
ii. The frame unit
iii. The handle unit
iv. The hinges
1.4 Justification of the Project
Metal door is a very strong type of door with a good life span and possesses high resistance to corrosion
Metal door is more advantageous when compared to other types of doors due to its mechanical properties especially when a good material is selected for the construction of the door. It is more appreciated when coated properly with quality paint.
Metal door is therefore preferred to other types of doors due to the following reasons.
i. It provides adequate security to life and properties
ii. It offers high resistance to strain.
iii. It has a good life span
iv. It beautify houses, offices etc
v. It offers a very high resistance to rusting when coated properly..