A STATISTICAL UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL RESPONSE OF LOCAL DOGS TO VACCINATION (A CASE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL VETERINARY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, VOM PLATEAU STATE)


A STATISTICAL UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL RESPONSE OF LOCAL DOGS TO VACCINATION (A CASE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL VETERINARY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, VOM PLATEAU STATE)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Approval Page    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Declaration    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Dedication    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Acknowledgement    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Abstract    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Table of Contents    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study    -    -    -    -    -   

1.2    Statement of the Problem    -    -    -    -   

1.3    Objectives of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -   

1.4    Research Questions    -    -    -    -    -    -   

1.5    Research Hypothesis    -    -    -    -    -    -   

1.6    Significance of the Study    -    -    -    -    -   

1.7    Scope of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -   

1.8    Limitations of the Study    -    -    -    -    -

1.9    Definition of Terms    -    -    -    -    -    -   

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

2.2    Theoretical Framework    -    -    -    -    -   

2.3    Conceptual Framework    -    -    -    -    -   

2.4    Empirical Review    -    -    -    -    -    -

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

3.2    Research Design    -    -    -    -    -    -   

3.3    Population of Study    -    -    -    -    -    -   

3.4    Sample size and Sampling Techniques    -    -    -   

3.5    Method of Data Collection    -    -    -    -    -   

3.6    Research Instrument

3.7    Validity of the Instrument    -    -    -    -    -   

3.8    Reliability of the Instrument    -    -    -    -   

3.9    Sampling Method    -    -    -    -    -    -   

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

4.2    Data Presentation and Analysis    -    -    -    -   

4.3    Testing Hypothesis    -    -    -    -    -    -   

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Summary    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

5.2    Conclusion    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

5.3    Recommendations    -    -    -    -    -    -   

    References -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Appendix    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

Vaccination of dogs generally is of utmost importance to us seeing that dog is man’s best friend. Vaccinating dogs not only helps to save dogs from infections but it also helps to protect man, seeing that we humans are in constant contact with dogs and most Nigerians eat dogs. So therefore it is essential we take proper care of dogs around us by vaccinating them appropriately.

Prompt Vaccinations protects dogs from specific diseases that can make it very sick, disable or even kill it. They help to boost the dog’s immune system against pathogens or disease causing organisms.

Vaccines create immunity that protects dogs from an infection without causing the suffering of the disease itself.  

Dog Vaccination is when a virus, or bacteria, is deliberately administered to a dog (usually by injection) so that the dog’s immune system can prepare to fight a future infection (Adams 2005). There are vaccines to help prevent many illnesses that affect dogs. Vaccinating your dog has long been considered one of the easiest ways to help him live a long and healthy life. Not only are there different vaccines for different diseases, there are different types and combinations of vaccines in Nigeria today. Regular and prompt vaccination of dogs have contributed both to the health of dogs and to the public health. In countries where routine rabies vaccination of dogs is practiced, for example, rabies in humans is reduced to a barest minimum.

Generally in Nigeria, we have two major types of dog vaccines in Nigeria namely, the killed vaccine which is locally made here in Nigeria and the modified live vaccine (MLV) which is often imported into the country (Obi 2005).

1.1.    STATEMENT OF GENERAL PROBLEM

Generally in Nigeria, dog vaccination has had its fair share of inconsistencies especially when it has a lot to do with vaccination of local dogs. The general response of local dogs in Nigeria has come under intense scrutiny, thus leading us to undertake this research work of statistically determining how local dogs respond to the two major types of vaccines when used together with worm expellants. When it comes to how local dogs respond to vaccines, it is generally said that puppies respond faster to vaccines than adult dogs, being researchers, we do not make assertions that are not statistically proven.  There is also this major concern about the potency of these two vaccines as to which of the two is more effective when used to vaccinate local dogs; this is also a major concern which led to this statistical survey or research.

1.2.    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study is aimed at the following:

1.    To find out if the antibody titer of each dog would keep increasing ,remain constant or decrease when  any of the vaccines ( killed vaccine or Modified live vaccine )  is used n both puppies and adult dogs if each of the vaccines are repeatedly used.( most important)

2.    To find out which among the two vaccine used would give the best result on local dogs (both adult and puppy dog). That is comparing the effect of two types of vaccines on the dogs.

    Which one of the de-worming drugs gives the best result when used on the local dogs?

3.    General response of local dogs to vaccination.

4.    To know the best combination of drug and vaccine that would have more effect on local dogs.

5.    To enlighten local dog breeders and veterinary doctors.

6.    To know if the response to these dogs to vaccination is sex or gender based.

1.3.    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The importance of this study is mainly to ascertain the response of local dogs to vaccination.  Another important Significance is to determine which of the two vaccines has greater effect on local dogs, to know if the response of these local dogs to vaccination is age or gender based; that is, do adult or puppy dogs respond differently or alike when vaccinated?. The same goes for male and female dogs. Another equally cardinal significance is to know which combination of drug and vaccine would have more effect on local dogs so that we can enlighten our local dog breeders and veterinary doctors on the recent development.

1.4.    SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

For the purpose of this study as the topic depicts, the scope of the study will be focused on how local dogs respond to vaccination, which de-worming drug when used with any of the vaccine has more effect on the local dogs. Another scope is to determine if the response of these dogs are age or gender based, that is if adult or puppy dogs response to vaccination is the same or different. The scope of this study would also be focused on which de-worming when used with vaccines has more effect on the local dogs and finally to know which of the two vaccines under study here is more effective when used on local dogs. In the earlier stage of the study there is a detailed coverage of the techniques and methods used in judging whether a dog responded well or not to vaccination by looking at their antibody titer.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

It is necessary to mention some of the limitation of this research work. The chief limitation is the difficulty in obtaining relevant information in that a few of our values were missing but these missing values were not  statistical significant enough to be noticed.

Notwithstanding, in the highlighted limitation above, it is          hoped that this research will be useful to dog breeders, veterinary     clinics and other similar organization that may want to know the general response of local dogs to vaccination.

1.5.    DEFINITION OF TERMS

Vaccine: a sub-substance that is put into the blood and that protects the body from a disease.

Vaccination:  Injection of a killed microbe in order to stimulate the immune system against the microbe, thereby preventing disease.

MLV:  Modified live vaccine.

Antibody titre: this is a test that detects the presence and measures the amount of antibodies within a person’s blood.

Antibody: this is a protein made by the body that latches unto foreign bacteria and viruses to make them in effective.

1.6.    RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The research hypotheses are as follows:

HYPOTHESIS 1

H0: there is no significant relationship between the antibody titre and the sex of the local dog.

H1: there is a significant relationship between the antibody titre and the sex of the local dog.

Level of significance: 0.05

Decision rule: reject H0 if p-value is less than the level of significance. Accept H0 if otherwise.

HYPOTHESIS 2

H0: there is no significant difference in the performance of the de-worming drugs on the local drugs.

H1: there is significant difference in the performance of the de-worming drugs on the local dogs.

Level of significance (α): 0.05

Decision rule: reject H0 if the p-value is less than the level of significance (α) accept H0 if otherwise.

HYPOTHESIS 3

H0 : there is no significant relationship between the age of the local dog and the rate of vaccination

H1 : there is  a significant relationship between the age of the local dog and the rate of vaccination

Level of significance (α): 0.05

Decision rule: reject H0 if the p-value is less than the level of significance (α) accept H0 if otherwise.

HYPOTHESIS 4

H0 : there is no significant difference in the effects of  MLV and KILLED vaccines when used with de-worming drugs on the local dogs.

H1 : there is significant difference in the effects of MLV and KILLED vaccines  when used with de-worming drugs on local dogs.

Level of significance (α): 0.05

Decision rule: reject H0 if the p-value is less than the level of significance (α) accept H0 if otherwise.

.

A STATISTICAL UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL RESPONSE OF LOCAL DOGS TO VACCINATION (A CASE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL VETERINARY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, VOM PLATEAU STATE)



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.ORG
Researchwap.org is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.org guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.org is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.org" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.