CONFLICT REPORTING IN NIGERIA


CONFLICT REPORTING IN NIGERIA  

ABSTRACT

This research work dwells specially and elaborately on conflict reporting in Nigeria. Nigeria being a heterogeneous society cannot avoid certain conflicts. This research work therefore strive to examine on how conflict is been reported in Nigeria, problems confronting the Nigerian press in conflict reporting and how to improve on conflict reporting in the country. This work also provides solutions to problems encountered by journalist while reporting conflicts in Nigeria. Recommendations are also made on how to improve on reporting conflicts in Nigeria.

TABLE OF CONTENTS   

TITLE PAGE    i

CERTIFICATION    ii

DEDICATION    iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT    iv

ABSTRACT    v

TABLE OF CONTENTS    vi

CHAPTER ONE   

1.0    INTRODUCTION    1

1.1 BACKGROUD OF THE STUDY    1

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM    3

1.3    RESEARCH QUESTIONS    3

1.4    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY    3

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY    4

1.6    SCOPE OF THE STUDY    4

1.7    LIMITATIONS    4

CHAPTER TWO   

2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW    5

2.1    CONCEPT OF THE MASS MEDIA    5

2.2    HISTORY OF THE MASS MEDIA    5

2.3    CAUSE OF THE CRISIS    7

2.4    HOW THE CRISIS BEGIN    8

2.5    OWNERSHIP OF JOS    14

2.6    INDIENSHIP OF JOS    16

2.7    CLASSIFICATION OF THE MASS MEDIA    17

2.8    FUNCTION OF THE MEDIA/PRESS    17

2.9    CONFLICT DEFINED    21

2.9.1 TYPES OF CONFLICT    21

2.9.2 WHAT HAS MEDIA GOT TO DO WITH IT    22

2.10 QUALITIES JOURNALIST MUST POSSES IN REPORTING   

    CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA    22

CHAPTER THREE   

3.0    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY    25

3.1    RESEARCH DESIGN    25

3.2    RESTATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS    25

3.3    CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDY POPULATION    25

3.4 SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDURE    25

3.5SAMPLE SIZE    26

3.6    RATE OF RETURN OF QUESTIONNAIRE    26

3.7    VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF STUDY INSTRUMENT    26

3.8    ADMINISTRATION OF DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT    26

3.9    DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE    26

CHAPTER FOUR   

4.0    DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION    28

4.1    SAMPLE POPULATION    28

4.2    DATA ANALYSIS    28

4.3    ANSWERS TO RESEARCH QUESTIONS    34

CHAPTER FIVE   

5.0    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS    36

5.1    SUMMARY    36

5.2    CONCLUSION    37

5.3    RECOMMENDATION    38

    BIBLIOGRAPHY    40

    RESEARCH INSTRUMENT    41

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

A trend of violent conflicts spreading through Nigeria in recent years has intensified in the past months leaving hundreds of people dead and thousand displaced.

This research work therefore focuses on how the press should report such conflicts is inevitable in a plural society such as Nigerian with diverse socio-cultural identities, the potential of conflict is further heightened by inter-group suspicion and corrupt leadership at almost every strata of the society. Thus an otherwise simple incident such as a woman crossing through a congregational prayer as it happened in Jos in 1001 may precipitate a violent clash between potential opponents

It is clear that the Nigerian state is presently grapping with latent ethnic and regional at identifying the reportage of this conflict the extent of

Nigerian press education of the audience on conflicts, and how the Nigerian press has been able to proffer solutions to conflicts in the country.

In the last decade as a result of downtown in the nation’s economy, there has been a very high degree of human sufferings, anger, disillusionment, moral decay and high crime rate. Under this harsh living conditions he members of the society tends to be aggressive and violent prone this has result in conflicts like Aglumeri and Umemeri, Ife and

Modakeke, Ijaw-Itsekiri, the Kaduna sharia riot, the Kano religious crisis and the recent Jos crisis the Nigerian citizen often turns to violence as a

result of the state insensitivity to their needs as the case in the Nigerian delta crisis.

The Nigerian press still faces the problem of press freedom in the dissemination of information to the heterogeneous Nigeria society. However, the Nigerian press must take extra caption in reporting conflict situation; media practitioners must watch their use of language in the event of reporting any conflict situations.

Conflict are an essential ingredient in the mass media, the press strives on existing imagined or evolving conflicts. Conflicts provide the substance for the drama, action, suspense and human interest upon which the loyalty of the audience is hinged. As a result of this the press must be effective in presenting model and correlating parts of the society needs to be vigilant to prevent reporting conflicts in away to avoid escalation of the conflicts. The press plays some role in the resolution on of disputes. Thus

Nigerian press should strive even harder to improve on its performance in this area. Equally as important as balance in the resolution of conflicts are constructiveness and responsibility in press coverage. While the newspapers and the news magazines did a splendid job of reporting Nigerian conflicts responsibility 90% of the time they were able to accord the same responsibility treatment to non-Nigerian conflict only 65% of the tune, and this means that they need it work harder to improve on the quality of their coverage of non-Nigerian conflict in this regard.

This very low level of constructiveness in this coverage of conflict events in west African sub-region also demands a concerned effort to improve upon this rather poor performance. This effect is a challenge to the

Nigerian press to realize and criticize the contending parties in an editorial or commending. It is also very important to be able to proffer well – informed

and plausible suggestions to the resolution of the conflict coverage to

Nigerian conflict alone while the Nigerian newspaper and news magazines leave themselves open to their professional responsibility.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The research work will concerned about evaluating the effect of Jos crisis in Nigeria and suggesting a possible solution. It will also aimed at revealing the problem confronted by the Nigerian mass media in reporting conflicts situation in Nigeria. A case study of Punch Newspaper would be our path to cover the crisis.

1.3    RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This research work intends to provide answers to the following questions.

1.    To what extent was the Nigerian press impartial in reporting the Jos crisis?

2.    To what extent did the press adequately educate the audience on the causes and other issues relating to the Jos crisis?

3.    What prominence was given to the Jos crisis by the Nigerian press?

4.    Has the punch newspaper helped in providing solution that can lead to eventual resolution of the Jos crisis?

5.    In what ways can government providing solution to the Jos crisis and other issues in Nigeria?

1.4    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.    To reveals the various techniques used in reporting conflict to avoid fueling such conflict.

2. To educate the audience on the causes of Jos Crisis and other issue in Nigeria.

3, To Suggest adequate resolution to the Jos Crisis.

4. To Sensitize government on how to provide lasting solution to the various conflicts in Nigeria.

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The Nigerian society is heterogeneous with diverse, socio-cultural,

exhumed and religions background. With this composition, conflicts is inevitable this research is therefore very significant conflicts.

1.6    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research work intends to cover the reportage of conflicts by the punch newspaper in Nigerian society with a particular focus on the Jos crisis which occurred in November 1008 to February 1009. It also based on general perspective of people formed the effect of Jos crisis (1008 to 1009.

1.7    LIMITATIONS

Problem that may be encountered in this research work are as follows:

a.    Financial Constraint: - every research work requires adequate financial flow for it completion. Money is very essential in a research work as it enables the researcher to get all necessary materials needed to investigate the phenomenon under study.

b.    Time:- time is another major constraint on the research work research work requires enough time to dig- out facts through investigative means.

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    SUMMARY

This research work sets out basically to analyses conflict reporting in

Nigeria. The objective is to find out how conflict especially the Jos crisis was reported in by the Punch Newspaper.

The chapter one of the research work contains the background of the study: where it is indicated that conflict is unessential ingredient of the mass media hence, priority should be given to conflict reporting in the country. The scope, objectives, significance and limitations to the study were also discussed in this chapter.

Chapter two of this research work, all relevant texts (literature) were reviewed. The concept of the mass media, conflict and its elements functions of the press, constitutional provision for press freedom, qualities of conflict r exporter and more were elaborately discussed in this chapter.

The chapter three of methodology. This comprises data collection instrument, included in this chapter.

this research is made of the research design, and the data analyzing

our of the research research population, procedure were all

In chapter four, the data collections in the previous chapter were analyzed and conclusion reached. The conclusion and re commendations were later presented in chapter five of this research study.

5.2    CONCLUSION

This research work has shows that the Punch Newspaper has rarely been found wanting in their coverage and reporting of conflicts and crisis, but they have occasionally been found wanting in the way and manner the content of their report is presented. The reasons for this have been exhaustively discussed for the Nigeria press nature is also added for the

Nigeria press nature of conflict reporting.

i.    Because the Nigeria media were actively involved in pre-indene and nationalistic struggles; they became part of the politics of difficult to alienate it self from partisan politics and conflicts that do usually arise from it what is glaringly noticed is the use of the mass media to achieve political ends out the detriment of public good as noticed in the history and reasons behind the establishment of some so- called national newspaper and the national broadcasting commission.

ii.    Media content of the Nigeria press most of the time is subjected to the principal actors involved. Most media house in the country are own by the government. Therefore it makes it difficult to report impartially especially when the government is involved in the conflict

iii.    After the nationalistic struggles were over there was no proper re-orientation of the Nigeria press away from militant /partisan journalism in their protection of regional interest.

iv.    The pattern of reporting conflicts and it management by the Nigeria press since the nationalized ayes seems to be continuing. This is clearly shown in the press handling of the conflicts that engulfed the principal personalities that engulfed the principal personalities that present civilian

dispensation for example, the media in the north gives prominence to conflicts involving public officials in the south west and vise versa.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendation are here by made to more the Nigeria press for ward in their reporting of conflict.

1.    The Nigeria press should avoid advocacy journalism. (journalism of taking stands of such controversial issues and advocating the acceptance of such stands not with standing the feelings of the audience the feeling of the such issue) or practice it with caution if and when it cannot be avoided

2.    Collective national interest must super cede parochial ethnic and individual interest in conflict reporting

3.    The Nigeria media should avoid the circulation of rumors and countered rumors whenever it surface in conflict situations.

4.    The Nigeria media should focus on educating the parties involved on the negative effects of the conflicts.

5.    Sensationalism that could possibly blow our conflict should be seriously avoided

6.    Suppression of the truth should be avoided as it will obviously escalate the crisis and create a false sense of security.

7.    Professionalism and ethical considerations must be held in high esteem or sacrosanct in the management and coverage if crisis.

8.    Maintain healthy skeptics and provided socially responsible critics avoiding relentless hostility. Responsible critics avoiding relentless hostility

9.    The Nigeria press should mount pressure on the national assembly to urgently pass the freedom of information (FOI) bill pending before it.

10.    Journalism schools and communication department of higher learning of institutions should add conflict reporting to its curriculum and teach its student how to use analytical tools.

11.    Journalist should provide background knowledge on events to balance their reports.

12.    Editions should act as gate keepers and be sensitive when using language.

In conclusion the Nigeria press must rise above petty report and face the challenges of constructive and balance reporting especially during conflicts periods.

The press, however should not support evil or help to perpetuate it and should therefore, always take stands to against it, this must be done professionally, ethically, objectively and cautiously.

.

CONFLICT REPORTING IN NIGERIA



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.ORG
Researchwap.org is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.org guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.org is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.org" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.