CONFLICT REPORTING IN NIGERIA
This research work dwells specially and elaborately on conflict reporting in Nigeria. Nigeria being a heterogeneous society cannot avoid certain conflicts. This research work therefore strive to examine on how conflict is been reported in Nigeria, problems confronting the Nigerian press in conflict reporting and how to improve on conflict reporting in the country. This work also provides solutions to problems encountered by journalist while reporting conflicts in Nigeria. Recommendations are also made on how to improve on reporting conflicts in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUD OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 3
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 3
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 3
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 4
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 4
1.7 LIMITATIONS 4
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1 CONCEPT OF THE MASS MEDIA 5
2.2 HISTORY OF THE MASS MEDIA 5
2.3 CAUSE OF THE CRISIS 7
2.4 HOW THE CRISIS BEGIN 8
2.5 OWNERSHIP OF JOS 14
2.6 INDIENSHIP OF JOS 16
2.7 CLASSIFICATION OF THE MASS MEDIA 17
2.8 FUNCTION OF THE MEDIA/PRESS 17
2.9 CONFLICT DEFINED 21
2.9.1 TYPES OF CONFLICT 21
2.9.2 WHAT HAS MEDIA GOT TO DO WITH IT 22
2.10 QUALITIES JOURNALIST MUST POSSES IN REPORTING
CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA 22
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 25
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 25
3.2 RESTATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS 25
3.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDY POPULATION 25
3.4 SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDURE 25
3.5SAMPLE SIZE 26
3.6 RATE OF RETURN OF QUESTIONNAIRE 26
3.7 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF STUDY INSTRUMENT 26
3.8 ADMINISTRATION OF DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT 26
3.9 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE 26
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 28
4.1 SAMPLE POPULATION 28
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS 28
4.3 ANSWERS TO RESEARCH QUESTIONS 34
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 36
5.1 SUMMARY 36
5.2 CONCLUSION 37
5.3 RECOMMENDATION 38
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT 41
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
A trend of violent conflicts spreading through Nigeria in recent years has intensified in the past months leaving hundreds of people dead and thousand displaced.
This research work therefore focuses on how the press should report such conflicts is inevitable in a plural society such as Nigerian with diverse socio-cultural identities, the potential of conflict is further heightened by inter-group suspicion and corrupt leadership at almost every strata of the society. Thus an otherwise simple incident such as a woman crossing through a congregational prayer as it happened in Jos in 1001 may precipitate a violent clash between potential opponents
It is clear that the Nigerian state is presently grapping with latent ethnic and regional at identifying the reportage of this conflict the extent of
Nigerian press education of the audience on conflicts, and how the Nigerian press has been able to proffer solutions to conflicts in the country.
In the last decade as a result of downtown in the nation’s economy, there has been a very high degree of human sufferings, anger, disillusionment, moral decay and high crime rate. Under this harsh living conditions he members of the society tends to be aggressive and violent prone this has result in conflicts like Aglumeri and Umemeri, Ife and
Modakeke, Ijaw-Itsekiri, the Kaduna sharia riot, the Kano religious crisis and the recent Jos crisis the Nigerian citizen often turns to violence as a
result of the state insensitivity to their needs as the case in the Nigerian delta crisis.
The Nigerian press still faces the problem of press freedom in the dissemination of information to the heterogeneous Nigeria society. However, the Nigerian press must take extra caption in reporting conflict situation; media practitioners must watch their use of language in the event of reporting any conflict situations.
Conflict are an essential ingredient in the mass media, the press strives on existing imagined or evolving conflicts. Conflicts provide the substance for the drama, action, suspense and human interest upon which the loyalty of the audience is hinged. As a result of this the press must be effective in presenting model and correlating parts of the society needs to be vigilant to prevent reporting conflicts in away to avoid escalation of the conflicts. The press plays some role in the resolution on of disputes. Thus
Nigerian press should strive even harder to improve on its performance in this area. Equally as important as balance in the resolution of conflicts are constructiveness and responsibility in press coverage. While the newspapers and the news magazines did a splendid job of reporting Nigerian conflicts responsibility 90% of the time they were able to accord the same responsibility treatment to non-Nigerian conflict only 65% of the tune, and this means that they need it work harder to improve on the quality of their coverage of non-Nigerian conflict in this regard.
This very low level of constructiveness in this coverage of conflict events in west African sub-region also demands a concerned effort to improve upon this rather poor performance. This effect is a challenge to the
Nigerian press to realize and criticize the contending parties in an editorial or commending. It is also very important to be able to proffer well – informed
and plausible suggestions to the resolution of the conflict coverage to
Nigerian conflict alone while the Nigerian newspaper and news magazines leave themselves open to their professional responsibility.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The research work will concerned about evaluating the effect of Jos crisis in Nigeria and suggesting a possible solution. It will also aimed at revealing the problem confronted by the Nigerian mass media in reporting conflicts situation in Nigeria. A case study of Punch Newspaper would be our path to cover the crisis.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research work intends to provide answers to the following questions.
1. To what extent was the Nigerian press impartial in reporting the Jos crisis?
2. To what extent did the press adequately educate the audience on the causes and other issues relating to the Jos crisis?
3. What prominence was given to the Jos crisis by the Nigerian press?
4. Has the punch newspaper helped in providing solution that can lead to eventual resolution of the Jos crisis?
5. In what ways can government providing solution to the Jos crisis and other issues in Nigeria?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To reveals the various techniques used in reporting conflict to avoid fueling such conflict.
2. To educate the audience on the causes of Jos Crisis and other issue in Nigeria.
3, To Suggest adequate resolution to the Jos Crisis.
4. To Sensitize government on how to provide lasting solution to the various conflicts in Nigeria.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The Nigerian society is heterogeneous with diverse, socio-cultural,
exhumed and religions background. With this composition, conflicts is inevitable this research is therefore very significant conflicts.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work intends to cover the reportage of conflicts by the punch newspaper in Nigerian society with a particular focus on the Jos crisis which occurred in November 1008 to February 1009. It also based on general perspective of people formed the effect of Jos crisis (1008 to 1009.
Problem that may be encountered in this research work are as follows:
a. Financial Constraint: - every research work requires adequate financial flow for it completion. Money is very essential in a research work as it enables the researcher to get all necessary materials needed to investigate the phenomenon under study.
b. Time:- time is another major constraint on the research work research work requires enough time to dig- out facts through investigative means.
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This research work sets out basically to analyses conflict reporting in
Nigeria. The objective is to find out how conflict especially the Jos crisis was reported in by the Punch Newspaper.
The chapter one of the research work contains the background of the study: where it is indicated that conflict is unessential ingredient of the mass media hence, priority should be given to conflict reporting in the country. The scope, objectives, significance and limitations to the study were also discussed in this chapter.
Chapter two of this research work, all relevant texts (literature) were reviewed. The concept of the mass media, conflict and its elements functions of the press, constitutional provision for press freedom, qualities of conflict r exporter and more were elaborately discussed in this chapter.
The chapter three of methodology. This comprises data collection instrument, included in this chapter.
this research is made of the research design, and the data analyzing
our of the research research population, procedure were all
In chapter four, the data collections in the previous chapter were analyzed and conclusion reached. The conclusion and re commendations were later presented in chapter five of this research study.
This research work has shows that the Punch Newspaper has rarely been found wanting in their coverage and reporting of conflicts and crisis, but they have occasionally been found wanting in the way and manner the content of their report is presented. The reasons for this have been exhaustively discussed for the Nigeria press nature is also added for the
Nigeria press nature of conflict reporting.
i. Because the Nigeria media were actively involved in pre-indene and nationalistic struggles; they became part of the politics of difficult to alienate it self from partisan politics and conflicts that do usually arise from it what is glaringly noticed is the use of the mass media to achieve political ends out the detriment of public good as noticed in the history and reasons behind the establishment of some so- called national newspaper and the national broadcasting commission.
ii. Media content of the Nigeria press most of the time is subjected to the principal actors involved. Most media house in the country are own by the government. Therefore it makes it difficult to report impartially especially when the government is involved in the conflict
iii. After the nationalistic struggles were over there was no proper re-orientation of the Nigeria press away from militant /partisan journalism in their protection of regional interest.
iv. The pattern of reporting conflicts and it management by the Nigeria press since the nationalized ayes seems to be continuing. This is clearly shown in the press handling of the conflicts that engulfed the principal personalities that engulfed the principal personalities that present civilian
dispensation for example, the media in the north gives prominence to conflicts involving public officials in the south west and vise versa.
The following recommendation are here by made to more the Nigeria press for ward in their reporting of conflict.
1. The Nigeria press should avoid advocacy journalism. (journalism of taking stands of such controversial issues and advocating the acceptance of such stands not with standing the feelings of the audience the feeling of the such issue) or practice it with caution if and when it cannot be avoided
2. Collective national interest must super cede parochial ethnic and individual interest in conflict reporting
3. The Nigeria media should avoid the circulation of rumors and countered rumors whenever it surface in conflict situations.
4. The Nigeria media should focus on educating the parties involved on the negative effects of the conflicts.
5. Sensationalism that could possibly blow our conflict should be seriously avoided
6. Suppression of the truth should be avoided as it will obviously escalate the crisis and create a false sense of security.
7. Professionalism and ethical considerations must be held in high esteem or sacrosanct in the management and coverage if crisis.
8. Maintain healthy skeptics and provided socially responsible critics avoiding relentless hostility. Responsible critics avoiding relentless hostility
9. The Nigeria press should mount pressure on the national assembly to urgently pass the freedom of information (FOI) bill pending before it.
10. Journalism schools and communication department of higher learning of institutions should add conflict reporting to its curriculum and teach its student how to use analytical tools.
11. Journalist should provide background knowledge on events to balance their reports.
12. Editions should act as gate keepers and be sensitive when using language.
In conclusion the Nigeria press must rise above petty report and face the challenges of constructive and balance reporting especially during conflicts periods.
The press, however should not support evil or help to perpetuate it and should therefore, always take stands to against it, this must be done professionally, ethically, objectively and cautiously..