ROLE OF MASS MEDIA ON THE FIGHT AGAINST KIDNAPPING IN NIGERIA
The issue of kidnapping has attracted global attention as a result of its enormous harm to the socio-economic fabric of nations. Its effects go beyond the physical damage to include psychological effects on the people. In Nigeria, many people have suffered acts of kidnapping, including the media. The Boko Haram group had earlier complained that the media are under reporting their activities and therefore have sworn to launch mass attack on the media (Daily Sun, 2012, p. 3). This study, therefore, sought to examine newspaper coverage of kidnapping in Nigeria with the aim of finding out the frame of presentation used by some selected newspapers in the country. This study adopted content analysis as its research design. The population of the study comprises of four selected national dailies namely: The Guardian, Tribune, New Nigerian and Champion newspapers, which were studied for a period of one year (April 2011 to April, 2012). Using multistage and composite week sampling techniques, the study arrived at 384 editions of the newspapers to be studied. The Pearson r correlational statistical technique was used to calculate for intercoder reliability. The study found that 57.0% of the news stories reported on the pages of the selected newspapers condemned the act of kidnapping as perpetuated by the terrorists in the country. It was also found that 45.8% of the news stories were reported on the front pages of the selected newspapers; indicating high prominence given to the issue of kidnapping in the country. The study concluded that newspaper coverage of kidnapping in the country have been impressive. It was, however, recommended that the media should improve on its investigative journalistic role to see if it would be possible to monitor the activities of these terrorists, in order to help government curb their actions.
Table of content
1.1 Background To The Study
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
2.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Mass media, crime fighting and security in Nigeria
Insecurity in Nigeria: An overview
3.2 Research design
3.3 Sources of Data
3.4 Population of the study
3.5 Sample size determination
3.11 Method of Data Collection
3.12 Method of Data Analysis
3.13 Ethical consideration
PRESENTATION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS
SECTION B: ANSWERING RESARCH QUESTIONS
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Discussion Of Findings
1.2Background of the study
Studies, in recent times, have shown that many nations both developed and developing that had never considered kidnapping as a serious social and political issues have begun to do so. This is due to the fact that the issue of kidnapping has attracted global attention as a result of its enormous harm to the socio-economic fabric of a nation. Kidnapping, as an issue, is not really a new phenomenon but has recently begun to constitute major threat to different states and the entire global order.
Lacquer (2003, p. 7) captures the attention that has been given to kidnapping in recent times when he noted that:
From time to time, following some spectacular attack, kidnapping would figure prominently in the media for a few days. There would be deliberations on the highest level of government, committees would be appointed and resolutions passed... In any case, kidnapping never threatens all countries in an equal measure, but this has changed now as kidnapping is bound to remain high on the list ofcountry‟s priorities.
Some people have tried to query the attention government of nations pay to this issue of kidnapping. It was even said that kidnapping is a child of economic difficulty and illiteracy. However, Alan and Malecková (2003, p. 119) were quick to resolve this issues when they noted that “the most glaring misconception about kidnapping is the assumption that terrorists are underprivileged, uneducated individuals on the fringe of society.
Increasingly, empirical studies of kidnapping have demonstrated that such a notion is flawed. Not only is there no empirical basis for this perception, but kidnapping also appears to be more of a desirable undertaking than a last resort for many individuals”.
There is no doubt that the act of kidnapping spells doom to a nation. The effects go beyond the physical damage to include diverse collateral consequences, part of which is the psychological effects on the people. The psychological effects is increased when the people feel they are not been carried along. Interestingly, major re-allocations of resources occur to support the repair of physical and psychological damage, restore order and alleviate fear, attempt to recreate a sense of normality, and to initiate protective actions for the future, although many instituted after the terrorist act have emerged. The general economic impact of kidnapping is that it diverts resources and undermines economic stability (Saul, 2002, p.18).
Nigeria is not left out in the target for terrorists‟ actions. As a country, she has suffered series of conflicts. Bunmi (2011, p.5)observed that“the ethno-religious fracas in parts of Jos, in Sept. 2001, July 2002, Nov. 2008 till date; acts of militancy in the Niger
Delta and most recently the attacks on innocent Nigerians that started in Maiduguri (Borno State) and sporadically spread to other States in the North where the Boko Haram adherents had pitched their tents, and the recent bombing of Abuja, are recent crises and acts of terror this country faces”.
The Boko Haram sect which has pushed the country to a tight conner still communicate treating messages to the government. During the 2009 uprising, their leader, Muhammad Yusuf, died in police custody. Since then, several arrests have been made by the Nigerian security forces, yet the attacks are getting messy as the group are demanding for the release of their members in Nigerian prisons. Recently, the media house have had their own share of the attacks as ThisDay newspaper headquarters in Abuja and the Daily Sun newspaper house in Kaduna were attacked by the sects. The group had earlier complained that the media are under reporting their activities and therefore have sworn to launch mass attack on the media (Daily Sun, 2012, p. 3).
The complain of the sect seems to have been a fallout from their knowledge of the importance of the media in reporting events in the society. Stating the importance of the media in kidnapping report, Laqueur (1976, p.9) noted that “terrorists have learned that the media are of paramount importance in their campaigns that the terrorist act by itself is next to nothing, whereas publicity is all. But the media, constantly in need of diversity and new angles, make fickle friends and so terrorists always have to be innovative. They are, in some respects, the super-entertainers of our time”. Writing further, Miller (1982, p.1) noted that kidnapping “is the media‟s stepchild, a stepchild, which the media, unfortunately, can neither completely ignore nor deny”.
In line with the relationship between the media and kidnapping, this study sought to examine newspaper coverage of kidnapping in Nigeria with the aim of finding out the frame of analysis and presentation used by selected newspapers in the country.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The act of terror might not really have any effect without the coverage of the media. Invariably, the mass media dramatically change, to some extent, the way and manner most terrorist exhibit their act of terror. In other to attract media attention, in most cases, terrorist identifies core areas of the fabric of the nation to perpetuate their evil act. This might be to make sure their actions do not escape the pages of the newspaper‟s account of the day‟s event(s). This is the only way their actions can be made known to a vast majority of the public.
However, the way these events of terror are reported by the media might have lots of implications attached to it. It can create more fear in the minds of the people, encourage the terrorists to commit more acts of terror, hinder economic development, create negative image for the government, and prevent foreign investment. The list of implications might be more than what has been mentioned.
This study, therefore, sought to examine newspaper coverage of kidnapping in Nigeria with the aim of finding out the frame of analysis and presentation used by selected newspapers in the country.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The main crux of this study is to examine newspaper coverage of kidnapping in Nigeria with the aim of finding out the frame of analysis and presentation used by some selected newspapers in the country.
Other specific objectives includes to:
1. Identify the direction of newspaper coverage of kidnapping in Nigeria.
2. Examine the level of prominence given to the news stories on kidnapping in the country.
3. Find out the depth of newspaper coverage of the issues of kidnapping in Nigeria.
4. Find out the economic implication of newspaper coverage of kidnapping.
5. Identify how government responded to the news of kidnapping in the country.
1.5 Research questions
This study was guided by the following research questions:
1. What is the direction of newspaper coverage of kidnapping in Nigeria?
2. What is the level of prominence given to the news stories on kidnapping in the country?
3. What is the depth of newspaper coverage of the issues of kidnapping in Nigeria?
4. What is the economic implication of newspaper coverage of kidnapping in the country?
5. How did government respond to the news of kidnapping in the country?
1.5. Significance of the study
Professionally, this work will help to know how the media has effectively covered the activities of terrorists in Nigeria, the economic implications, and how government responds to news of kidnapping in the country. Academically, this study will also serve as an empirical data for future researchers who may wish to carry out a further investigation on the activities of terrorists in Nigeria.
2.1 Focus of Review
Several works have been done on kidnapping; hence, this research work is entirely not ground breaking. This chapter basically reviews some of the related research work on this subject with a view to knowing the state of knowledge in the area and sharpening the focus of this research.
2.2 Review Itself
The Mass Media and Strategic Communication against Kidnapping
In a study conducted by Alex Umuerri and John Danladi Galadima in 2012, entitled “Mass Media, Development of National Security and Strategic Communication Against Kidnapping” it was revealed that “the mass media can be used for strategic communication against kidnapping. On the grounds that strategic communication is the structure upon which media contents strives” (Umuerri& Galadima, 2012, p. 15).
The researchers argued that “in Nigeria, the mass media carry out their conventional functions of informing, educating and entertaining the people through news items, articles, editorial, etcetera. While this approach remains acceptable in reporting the events, it has become seemingly difficult to rely wholeheartedly on this pattern especially on this vexed issue of terrorists acts in Nigeria” (Umuerri& Galadima, 2012, p. 15).
They argued that the conventional reporting is not enough to communicatekidnapping and fight its menace to the society. Because of this, a better form of communication is required to address the issue of kidnapping in the country. They noted that “kidnapping reporting is seen as part of the media‟s routine schedule of reporting. This calls for a serious re-examination if the mass media are to make any appreciable impact in the fight against kidnapping. There is therefore need to have closely –knit, well established English and vernacular newspapers which would be privately owned and government owned in all the states of the federation so that their effects will be felt in the reportage of kidnapping. This is necessary because some of the terrorists have been identified as locals of the different communities. Also, community radio stations should be used” (Umuerri& Galadima, 2012, p.16)..