RADIO LISTENING HABITS OF STUDENTS IN HIGHER INSTITUTION A CASE STUDY OF BOWEN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Radio is one of the viable media of mass communication. Just as communication is the transfer of information from the source to a destination. Presently, for anything to be called communication it must efficiently reach to the source, passing through the specified channel. Undoutfully, there is no way communication could be completed without feedback. It is on this background, that the research deemed it necessary to have a look at the listening habit of students in higher institution of learning particularly the students of Bowen University. The researcher went further to find out what could entice students to listening to the radio programme. In the world today, different radio stations exist, but ability to attract audience listening is what matters, and when this is lacken people turn off their radio. Any time a radio station encounters this, the audience interest wear away as the station’s image is put at stake. It is therefore revealed that for a media house to be successful it needs to work on having the audience in place before planning its programmes.
Due to the heterogeneous nature of the student’s population in the Bowen University which formed my case study, convenient sampling technique was used. In this method, 200 final year students was selected cutting across various faculties of the university from the entire population and this was able to reveal whether students listen more or less to radio programmes.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope/Limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of Terms
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
2.2 Theoretical Framework
2.3 Nature of Radio
2.4 Strengths and Weaknesses of Radio
2.5 Radio Listenership
2.6 Advantages of listening
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of the Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample of the Study
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
3.6 Reliability and Validity of Instrument
3.7 Techniques of Data Analysis
3.8 Scoring of the Research Instrument
3.9 Decision Rule
Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Radio is an essential mass medium that virtually every member of the society benefits from. Kuewumi (2009) asserts that Radio has radicalized the face of human communication and ultimately become a fixed point in the daily lives of humans whereby people are informed, taught, nurtured and reformed by way of relaxation, reinvigoration and resuscitation. This he argued, makes radio as a medium of mass communication being constantly sought after by its ardent listeners. Radio is the wireless transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic radiation of a frequency significantly below that of visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 30 kHz to 300GHz.
Egbuchulam (2002) defined radio as a mobilizer and a formidable factor in the new world order in economy, technology and politics. Radio is best described as the cheapest, safest and the most effective medium of communication available to man. According to Onabajo (1999), in the developing world as in Asia and Africa, radio is cheap; it does not cost much compared to television which is expensive. It is also portable i.e. it can be easily transported from one place to another. It is credible as it transmits messages that its listeners hold important. Radio can also present news as it happens, brings the voices of news makers and artists into the homes of listeners. It also provides dramatic shows and other entertainment, which listeners can visualize even in the absence of visuals. For that reason, radio enjoys the advantage of simultaneity. It requires little effort of its consumers to comprehend its message. It is a good companion that entertains and informs its listeners. Kuewumi (2009) has this to say about radio: “imagine a world without radio; it will be like a garden without flowers and trees. Radio daily feeds us with information, teaches us and calms our nerves. If radio is well understood and its potentials realized, hardly will there be any one that will live without a radio. Many anxious moments will be healed.”
Radio is a vehicle for projecting personality through which it attracts and holds an audience. It is an efficient instrument for getting a message to a large number of people at the same time, because it transcends the boundary of space and time, and also leaps across illiteracy barriers (Onabajo, 1999).
Egbuchulam (2002) asserts that radio has been a major communication tool for improving the quality of people’s lives, bringing to their doorstep news, entertainment and education through its programmes. Despite the world wide enchantment with the internet and web-based learning, radio still retains the advantage of being able to serve dispersed, isolated, and disadvantaged communities aspiring to overcome the barriers of illiteracy and physical distance in many countries. Listeners use and relate to radio in very different ways compared to other media. Listeners use radio for various reasons one of which is for emotional support, to keep their spirits up through programmes, and the result will determine to a large extent the attitude listeners would have to programmes. People listen to radio to be informed, entertained, educated, follow their favourite football team, and follow fashion trends or popular music, among others.
According to Oliveira, Portela, & Santos (2012), it is assumed that listeners make their own interpretations of a radio programme – if the presentation includes something they can relate to, something familiar. The encounter between the radio programme and the listener is regarded as a meaning making process within a cultural context.
This meaning making process is influenced by a variety of factors, such as the radio programme topic, design and the socio-cultural variations in experiences, knowledge and cultural dispositions. The figures of those who listen to radio continue to increase thus indicating an increasing affinity for the free and participatory opportunities offered by radio stations (Bamgboye, 2013). Radio plays an integral role in providing its listener with news, music and other programmes, while also acting as a voice that represents them as well as the society at large.
It is therefore no argument that radio serves as a means of communication. In the aspect of information, radio provides information in terms of news that is, the day-to-day information within and outside the country. Radio also encourages its listener to know more about entertainment, education, and politics; they can also participate through phone-in programmes, talk shows and motivational programmes. Radio generally helps to broaden the knowledge intellectually and morally. This study is designed to examine the radio listening habits of students in higher institutions, using students of Bowen University as the focus of study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Deregulation of the broadcasting industry in 1992 led to increase in the number of commercial radio stations in Nigeria; this in turn posed a big challenge to radio proprietors, producers and directors to have a well packaged content that will gratify Nigerians, with about 70% of the total population of Nigeria as youths (Ismaila, 2013). The significance of radio in informing, educating, and entertaining students in the educational institution is not in doubt, and it is one way by which they keep in touch with the contemporary world. It can be assumed that before the advent of radio, information on what is happening outside the school premises especially in the educational and social world was (would be) difficult to discern by students. Even after the advent of radio and going a step further to establish campus radio stations, there is still doubt as to how many students are aware of what is happening beyond the walls of their school premises, and in the global world. As students, especially of higher institutions, it is imperative that they keep abreast of goings-on around them, in the country and the world at large. This study therefore seeks to examine the radio listening habits of students in higher institutions.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
To determine whether Bowen University students listen to radio regularly. To identify the satisfaction that Bowen University students derive from listening to radio. To determine the attitude of Bowen University students to radio programmes.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Do Bowen University students listen to radio regularly? What satisfaction do Bowen University students derive from listening to radio? What is the attitude of Bowen University students to radio programmes?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
The results from this study will educate the students and the general public on the benefits accruable from listening to radio while informing on the extent to which higher institution students listens to radio. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will be limited to the students of Bowen University. It will also cover their radio listening habit.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
Akintayo, B. J. (2013). Influence of Adventist World Radio (AWR) Programming on Behaviour of Listenersin Adamawa and Taraba States of Nigeria, (2008-2012). An Unpublished PhD Thesis, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Ismaila, D. M. (2013).Youth Radio Listening Habitsand Station Preferences in Nigeria. Lagos: John West Publications Limited
Katz, P.R &Blumler, J. (2004).The Effects of MassCommunication in Political Behaviour. Bonn: Bouvier.
Kuewumi, J.B. (2009). Radio: How it Impacts the Listener Personally. Babcock University Mass Communication Journal, 2(1), 138-149
Onabajo, S. (1999).Essentials of Broadcast Writingand Production. Lagos: Gabi Concept Ltd.
Oyelade, O. H. (2006). Active listening: the key tosuccess and development. Babcock University Mass Communication Journal, 116-117.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The objectives of this study were;
1. Measuring the level of student’s attitude and interest in the total content of radio programmes.
2. Individual perspective to listening habit of students to radio programmes.
3. Identifying the extent by which such variables such as sex, course of study age, affect audience towards radio programmes.
Findings from the study revealed that majority of the respondents are of the opinion that
In conclusion, it is no doubt that radio plays a very significant role in the lives of young people, as it informs, educates and entertains its audience, and information derived from radio is used for decision making, logical argument, and more. Therefore radio broadcasters are regarded as credible sources of knowledge dispensers and should endeavor to always give information based on facts, so that their audience would not be misled. Also, radio stations should continue to perform the functions of the media, which is to inform, educate, entertain, among others, because respondents have agreed that radio plays a significant role in their lives.
This study has established the fact that the radio listening habit of Bowen University students is positive, and they have adequate access to radio within the environment. It was also discovered that Bowen University students have a positive attitude towards radio programmes. The researchers recommend that the management of radio stations should improve on their programming style; because Bowen University students response have shown that programming influences their attitude towards radio station. If radio stations are able to do this it will further increase the positive attitude towards radio programmes. More programmes that can meet up with the expectations of students should be introduced, and on this note the researchers further recommend that the administration of Bowen University should consider establishing a campus radio station for its students, so that the students can have a closer feel of radio, and those who do not yet have the culture of listening to radio will be encouraged to do so. On a final note, the study recommends that the signal quality and coverage of radio stations should be re-visited by the (NBC) FRCN, because from the analysis of this research, it is clear that most Bowen University students face difficulty when listening to radio on campus..