TELEVISION COMMERCIALS ON THE BUYING HABIT OF ENUGU RESIDENTS (A STUDY OF ARIEL AND SUNLIGHT DETERGENT)
This study is aimed at finding the effect of television commercials on the buying habits of Enugu resident. A study made use of survey (sampling) method of social scientific research which involves interviews using structured questionnaires. The sample size of 200 people was drawn from different parts of Enugu metropolis in distributing the questionnaire, the researcher considered the respondent’s income level, education level and ensured that they had television sets in their homes in order to get a true reflection of the study group. The data preserved and analyzed shows that, television commercials affects the buying habits of Enugu Resident, people who are exposed to detergent’s commercials tends to accept (buy) Aeriel detergent more than other brands and brand loyalty of Aeriel and sunlight detergent is not habitual rather it is influenced by commercials.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background to the Study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem - - - - 5
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - 6
1.4 Significance of the Study - - - - - 7
1.5 Research Questions - - - - - - 9
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study - - - - 10
1.7 Delimitation of the Study - - - - - 11
1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - - 11
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Importance of Psychology to Commercials - - 14
2.2 Psychological Determinant of Buyer Behaviour - 15
2.3 Commercials and Psychology - - - - 18
2.4 Sociology and Commercials - - - - - 19
2.5 Influences on Consumer Buying Behaviour - - 20
2.6 Needs and Motivation-----24
2.7 Brand Loyalty and Consumer Behaviour - - 26
2.8 Commercials - - - - - - - 34
2.9 Theoretical Basis of Consumer Behaviour - - 36
2.10 Theoretical Frame Work - - - - - 39
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - - 41
3.2 Research Sample Size - - - - - - 42
3.3 Sampling Technique - - - - - - 43
3.4 Method of Data Collection/Measuring Instrument - 44
3.5 Method of Data Analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Presentation - - - - - - 45
4.2 Discussion of Findings - - - - - 57
SUMMARY/CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 62
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 64
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 66
References - - - - - - - 68
1.2 Background to the Study
The Nigerian businessman or manufacturer of various household commodities are now conscious of the fact that, he/she has to provide the consumer with a quality product at a competitive price, in a place where it will be accessible for him to buy and be informed of the existence of such a product through commercials.
With the same manufacturers offering the same type of products, competition now exist and they (manufacturers) are all fighting for the same consumer’s Naira.
In the past, only multinational companies (blue-chips companies) such as Cadbury food specialists, Lever Brothers PLC and P.Z industries PLC as well Coca-Cola Company were notably engaged in serious commercials. These companies have always believed in giving the consumer quality products, developing effective distribution network to ensure that the products are easily obtained, which encourages high product trials by consumers and subsequently builds strong loyalty.
The Nigeria detergent industry is not yet recession prone, it seems to have escaped the bad tag usually associated with most Nigeria made goods and highly proliferated products. The austerity measure led to shortages of imported raw materials facing most detergent companies have justifiably cut down commercials’ expenditure, as they cannot go for heavy weight campaigns for products that are in short supply in the market. Some have completely stopped commercials while those who know the value of commercial still carry reminder commercials.
It is in the light of this importance attributed to television commercials that the researcher seeks to find out whether television commercials affect members of Enugu metropolis’ choice of detergents. Whether the presence of other factors such as price, quality of the products, availability of the products, peer group influence, product popularity and its effects on the buying habits of people in Enugu metropolis.
According to Herbert, E. Krugrnan, vice President of MARPLAN:
commercials commonly operates in a situation of involvement where attitude change is usually not the first criterion of effect, but follows long, after a gradual change in perception, perhaps some behavioral choice. That is, if brand A is made salient than brand B, there is a good chance that an individual will buy brand A, and if he changes attitude at all, it probably be after-ward.
Therefore, television commercials operating under low involvement and perceptual defaces, create changes in perceptual structure that can trigger a behavioral act which in turn affects attitude. Katz and Lazarsfeld, (1995:193-263) stressed that: “Consumers preference and choice of product brands may be informed by a cohabitation of varied factors including commercials”.
The quality of a product is a strong motivating factor in the choice of a particular product. The commercial of a particular product that fails to live up to the expectation of the consumers will not be effective and thus will not exert any influence on the consumers.
The primary effects of communication are not directly observable. Primary effects occur at the level of the image a receiver has organized inside the “Black Box” so to speak. While we can make inferences about communication effects based on the receiver’s behaviour. The true effect of a message may be more or less subtle, far reaching and complex than any observable measures can indicate. In other words, a message can be interpreted such that it either results in a change in some part of the image formed or such that it does not.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Commercials is one of the determinants of the knowledge of goods by the consumer of any company. Without adequate knowledge of products, the consumers will not know the type of brand, price and where to buy a particular good.
The problems inherent in this study are aptly stated. There are;
⦁ Consumers find it difficult making a repeat purchase on product whose advertisement are not motivating.
⦁ Many firms sales turn over are sometimes low in which could be caused by inadequate use of commercial slogans.
Sometimes, the abstract communication method used in television, makes it difficult for people to comprehend the message being conveyed.
Most commercials exaggerate a specific product motivating the consumer to for go it and whereas when gotten the reverse will be the case. In such cases, the effect of commercials are almost null.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Thus, the study will examine the effectiveness of television commercials and to evaluate the following:
a) To ascertain if television commercial is responsible for brand loyalty.
b) To ascertain if commercials’ motivates members of Enugu metropolis in their choices of detergents.
c) To find out whether there are other factors other than television that affect members of Enugu metropolis in their choice of detergents.
d) To find out if television commercial(s) has a neutral, negative or positive effect on the choice of detergents of Enugu metropolis.
e) To discover the impact of quality of detergents in the buying behaviour of Enugu metropolis
f) To discover if member of Enugu metropolis will switch to buy another brand if the price of their brand increase.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The importance and fidelity of television commercials cannot be over-emphasized; research conducted over the years revealed the tremendous emphasis placed on commercials by manufacturers.
The study will be of great significant to manufacturers when planning their commercials so as to avoid wasting money on ineffective commercial. This will help them to know how to reach their target audience and find out their needs, thus making them to purchase the product. Thereby increasing the manufacturers’ profits.
The study will equally be of great use to people in Enugu metropolis when making their purchases, in order to get maximum satisfaction and make use of their purchasing power. It will also be of use to marketing students who may wish to take up similar studies.
The outcome of this research work will contribute to the existing literatures on television commercials and its influence on brand preference and loyalty.
1.5 Research Questions
The following are the research questions for this study:
a) Does Aeriel and Sunlight detergents’ commercials persuade consumers to buy the product?
b) Does the brand name of a particular detergent denote quality?
c) Do individual characteristics of people in Enugu metropolis influence their choice of detergent?
d) Do the quality and availability of a brand affect the choice of such brand?
e) Is the price of detergents related to consumers’ choice of detergents?
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study focuses on the effectiveness of television commercials on the buying habits of people in Enugu metropolis and will also highlight some factors that can influence choice of detergents for washing.
Studying all households’ detergents users will prove very difficult and arduous. Therefore, this study will be limited to only two detergents such as Aeriel and Sunlight detergents which are the two brand leaders according to recent researches.
Due to some factors (known as intervening variables), the sample size for this study is delimited 200 respondents. The areas selected for this study were selected to represent the entire Enugu town. Hence, they are the study population as proposed.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
Although the research was successful. But the researcher encountered several constraints which include, refusal to fill some of the questionnaire by respondent, lack of time, find and human resources were among other challenges surmounted during this study.
1.8 Definition of Terms
1. Commercial: Sponsored messages on television by manufacturers of detergents aimed at persuading users and prospective users of detergents.
2. Effect: Causing something or successful in producing a result.
3. Television: The medium through which manufacturers of detergents each the population sample with messages.
4. Buying Habits: The recognizable patterns of purchases of detergents made by people in Enugu metropolis.
5. Brand: This is defined as “Aeriel or “Sunlight”, for Aeriel the neutron symbol and the half sun and half lemon orange symbol are given to them for easy identification.
6. Motivation: The ability of television commercials to move people in Enugu metropolis to choose a detergent after exposure to commercial on the product.
7. Brand loyalty: The repeated purchase of Aeriel or Sunlight detergent by the population sample.
8. Television commercial: selling of Aeriel and Sunlight detergents with motion pictures, colourful pictures, jingles and slogans on television
9. Exposure: It means coming in contact with commercial of detergents on television.
10. Educated people: Anyone who has attained at least the school certificate level of formal education.
11. Enugu metropolis: The population sample for the study. That is, those people living in Enugu..