DEVELOPMENT OF NODAL ANALYSIS FOR PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION- A SOFTWARE ASSISTED APPROACH


DEVELOPMENT OF NODAL ANALYSIS FOR PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION- A SOFTWARE-ASSISTED APPROACH 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page………………..i

Certification………….…ii

Dedication………………iii

Acknowledgement……….iv

Table of content……...…v

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of study

1.2    STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

1.3    OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

1.4    SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

1.5    SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

1.6        PROJECT MATERIALS

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVl1W

2.1 DEFINITION

2.2 INFLOW PERFORMANCE

2.3 OIL WELL INFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP (IPR)

2.3.2 The Relevance of establishing a well’s IPR

2.3.1 Productivity Ratio (PR) or Flow Efficiency (FE)

2.4  TUBING INTAKE CURVE

2.5 SKIN EFFECT AND SKIN FACTOR

PRESSURE DROPS

I PERFORATED GRAVEL PACK COMPLETIONS

2.7 CHOKE OR BEAN PERFORMANCE

2.8 THE NODAL ANALYSIS.

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1. INTRODUCTION TO TI-TE METHODOLOGY

3.2 DATA SOURCE AND DATA ANALYSIS

3.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

34 CASE STUDY OBJECTIVES

3.5 PROSPER

3.6 OBJECTIVE 1: Simulate well X-05 performance by building a representative

(valid) model using PROSPER.

3.7 OBJECTIVE 2:Simulating Base Case Forecast Under Various Operating Condition.

3.8 OBJECTIVE 3:Productionevaluating various development options to optimizeoil

CHAPTER 4

SYSTEM DATA, RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

4.1 OPTIONS

4.2 PVT DATA

4.3 IPR DATA

RESULTS

4.4EQUIPMENT DATA

4.5 ANALYSIS SUMMARY

4.5.1 SIMULATING BASE CASE FORECAST UNDER VARIOUS OPERATING

CONDITIONS.

4.5.2 EVALUAT1J’G VARIOUS DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS TO OPTIMIZE OIL

PRODUCTION

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 CONCLUSIONS

5.1 RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Nodal analysis also known as “system analysis” is a systematic procedure/approach applied to the enhancement or optimization of production of oil and gas wells by analyzing and evaluating the complete production system. Every component that constitutes the production system can be optimized to achieve the objective production (flow) rate most economically. The production system comprises of flow of hydrocarbon fluids from the reservoir to the surface production facilities, and including inflow performance, as well as flow across the completion, up the tubing string (including any downhole restrictions and safety valves) across the surface choke (if applicable), through horizontal flow-lines.

The production system can be relatively simple or can include many components in which energy or pressure losses occur (fig, 1-1).

Any production well is drilled and completed to move the oil or gas from its original location in the reservoir to the stock tank or sales line (for gas). Movement or transport of these fluids requires energy to overcome friction losses in the system and to lift the products to the surface.  The fluids must travel through the reservoir and the piping system and ultimately flow into a separator for gas-liquid separation. The pressure drop in the total system at any time will be the static initial fluid pressure minus the final fluid pressure, PR-Psep. This pressure drop is the sum of the pressure drops occurring in all of the components of the system (fig 1.2). Since the pressure drop through any component varies with producing rate, the producing rate will be controlled by the components selected. The selection and sizing of the individual components is very important, but because of the interaction among the components, a change in the pressure drop in one may change the pressure drop behavior in all the others. This occurs because the flowing fluid is compressible, and, therefore, the pressure drop in a particular component depends not only on the flow rate through the component, but also on the average pressure that exists in the component.

The final design of a production system cannot be separated into reservoir performance and piping system performance and handled independently. The amount of oil and gas flowing into the well from the reservoir depends on the pressure drop in the piping system, and the pressure drop in the piping system depends on the amount of fluid flowing through it. Therefore, the entire production system must be analyzed as a unit.

The production rate or deliverability of a well  can often be severely restricted by the performance of only one component in the system. If the effect of each component on the total system performance can be isolated, the system performance can be optimized in the most economical way.

1.2       STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

There are numerous oil and gas wells around the world that have not been optimized to achieve an objective rate efficiently. Past experience has shown that large amounts of money have been wasted on stimulating the formation when the well's producing capacity was actually being restricted because the tubing or flow line size was too small. Another example of errors in completion design is to install tubing that is too large. This often happens on wells that are expected to produce at high rates. It has been shown that this practice not only wastes money on oversized equipment, but tubing that is too large can actually reduce the rate at which a well will flow. Thus can cause the well to load up with liquids and die, which necessitate; the early installation of artificial lift equipment. In fact, many wells may have been completed in such a manner that their maximum potential rate cannot be achieved.

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The objectives of nodal analysis are as follows.

To determine the flow rate at which the existing oil or gas well will produce considering well bore geometry and completion limitations (by natural flow). To optimize the system to produce the objective flow rate most economically. To check each component in the well system to determine whether it is restricting the flow rate unnecessarily. To permit quick recognition by the operator's management and engineering staff of ways to increase production rates.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

Nodal analysis is a great tool for production optimization; its effects to the oil and gas industry are vast and include the following:

Quick estimate of flow rate, and as such reduction in time taken to do this. Alternative method for the prediction of flow rate. Identify the reservoir and well parameter that affect the flow rate the most and as such will aid engineers to concentrate on these factors when sourcing for data and when performing PROSPER run.

One of the most important aspects of nodal analysis is to recognize wells that should be producing at rates higher than their current rate. Therefore, it can serve as an excellent tool to verify that a problem exists and that additional testing is necessary.

Nodal analysis can determine which component is restricting the rate or can determine that incorrect data are the cause of the higher predicted rate.

1.5       SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

This study is intended to cover the following areas

System Analysis Approach Nodal Concept Inflow Performance Relationships Well Design Theory of the Reservoir flow Flow Restrictions Completion Effects Multiphase flow Use of Computer software Program (PROSPER) for Complex Solution.

Some limitations encountered in the course of this study are:

Access to accurate data Time constraint Breech on internet access due to poor network Power     

PROJECT MATERIALS Production optimization text books, journals and papers PROSPER software Well/reservoir data Recent projects on nodal analysis ( for reference purposes)

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVl1W

2.1 DEFINITION

Nodal analysis is the application of system analysis to the complete well system from the outer boundary of the reservoir to sand face, across the perforations and completion section to the tubing intake, up the tubing string including any restrictions and downhole safety valves, the surface choke, the flow line and separator.

It is a method of achieving optimum production from a well which involves an approximate selection of the individual components in the production system. Analysis shows whether or not the particular well is limited in its production rate by the reservoir’s ability to give up fluids or by the producing system. the selection of various parameters such as separator pressure or size of flowline is related to economics.

Nodal analysis uses a combination of the following;

a. Well inflow performance.

b. Downhole muftiphase flow conduit performance vertical or directional conduit performance).

c. Suri’ace performance (inc’uding choke, horizontal or inclined flow performance and separator).

The performance of either a naturally flowing well is determined. The effect of various changes in one component of the system has an over-all effect on the entire system. Typical wells are selected in order to show the effect of various changes, such as;

a. Separator pressure

b. Flov.line size

c. Surface choke size

d. Tubing size

.

DEVELOPMENT OF NODAL ANALYSIS FOR PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION- A SOFTWARE ASSISTED APPROACH



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