DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS LEAKAGE DETECTOR USING GSM MODULE


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER-BASED LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS LEAKAGE DETECTOR USING GSM MODULE

ABSTRACT

The aim of this project works is to Design and Construct a Microcontroller Based Liquefied Petroleum Gas leakage Detector system using GSM Module, a system capable of detecting if there is gas leakage and sends messages to specified number informing them about the leakage without any time delay

This design work was achieved by using a gas sensor which monitor and detect if there is a gas leakage, and a microcontroller which is programmed to send the necessary information to a GSM module and the information is sent to a specified number via the GSM module if there is a leakage. The system also has a backup battery to keep it working when there is power failure.

The circuit was constructed and tested by spreading small amounts of LPG near the gas sensor, the system detects the gas and sends a short message, “Gas leakage at Ugbomro pipeline 10meters from flow station” to a specified mobile number.

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE                                            PAGE   

Title page                                        i

Certification page                                    ii

Dedication                                                iii

Acknowledgement                                    iv

Abstract                                        v

List of Figures                                    ix

List of Tables                                        x

List of Abbreviations                                xi

CHAPTER ONE:        INTRODUCTION                                                                                                                  

    1.1 Background of Study                                1               

1.2 Problem Statement                                3

  1.3 Aim and Objectives                                3

        1.4 Scope     of Project                                4

        1.5 Applications                                    4                                                                    

        1.6 Outline of Remaining Chapters                        4

CHAPTER TWO:    LITERATURE REVIEW

 2.1 Analysis of Existing System                            5

        2.1.1 Non-technical systems                            6

        2.1.2 Acoustic Methods                                7

        2.1.3 Optical Methods                                8

        2.1.4 Active Methods                                8

        2.1.5 Passive Methods                                10   

        2.2 Review of principles                                11   

CHAPTER THREE:    METHODOLOGY AND SYSTEM DESIGN ANALYSIS

3.1 Methodology                                    15

        3.2 Design Analysis                                16

        3.2.1 Power supply and Charging unit                        17

        3.2.1.1 Ac Mains                                    17

        3.2.1.2 Transformer                                17

        3.2.1.3 Bridge Rectifier                                19

        3.2.1.4 Capacitor                                    22

        3.2.1.5 Resistors                                    22

        3.2.1.6 Relay                                    22

        3.2.2 Sensing Unit                                24

        3.2.3 Controlling Unit                                27

        3.2.4 GSM unit                                    30

        3.2.5 Software Subsystem                            30

        3.2.6 Parts Required                                34

        3.3 Mode of Operation                                35

CHAPTER FOUR:    CONSTRUCTIONS, TESTING AND RESULTS

4.1 Implementation                                37

        4.1.1 Construction Method                            37

        4.1.1.1 Power Supply Unit                            37

        4.2  Bill of Engineering Measurement/ Evaluation                40

        4.3 Testing                                    41

        4.4 Results and Observations                            41

CHAPTER FIVE:        CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

       5.1 Conclusion                                    44

       5.2 Problems Encountered                            44

       5.3 Recommendations                                45

References                                        46

Appendixes                                        48

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1: Block diagram of the entire project

Figure 3.2: Block Diagram of the entire system

Figure 3.3: Block Diagram of Power Supply and Charging Unit

Figure 3.4: Circuit representation of a Bridge Rectifier

Figure 3.5: Circuit Diagram of Charging Circuit

Figure 3.6: Pin configuration of Relay

Figure 3.7: Block diagram of Sensing Unit

Figure 3.8: Sensitivity characteristics of MQ_6

Figure 3.9: Temperature and humidity characteristics of MQ_6

Figure 3.10: Basic block diagram of sensing circuit

Figure 3.11: Circuit diagram of sensing circuit

Figure 3.12: Flow chart of the system

Figure 3.13: Complete Circuit Diagram of Microcontroller Based LPG leakage           Detector Using GSM Module

Figure 4.1: Isometric View of Project Casing

Figure 4.2: Front View of Project Casing

Figure 4.3: Gas output on a serial monitor

Figure 4.4: Screenshot of Message sent

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1: Bill of Engineering Measurement/Evaluation

Table 4.2: Values of Gas sensor

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AC – Alternating Current

ADC – Analog to digital converter

BEDC – Benin Electricity Distribution Company

DC – Direct current

EEPROM – Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

GFCR – Gas filter Correlation Radiometer

GPRS – General Packet Radio Service

GND – Ground

GSM – Global System for Mobile Communication

HEX – Hexadecimal

IC – Integrated Circuit

IDE – Integrated Development Environment

IP – Internet Protocol

LIDAR – Light Detection and Ranging

LPG  – Liquefied Petroleum Gas

PPB – Parts Per Billion

PPM – Parts per Million

PWM – Pulse Width Modulation

PPT – Parts Per Trillion

RX – Receiver

SIM – Subscriber Identity Module

SRAM – Static Random Access Memory

SNO2 – Tin dioxide

SMS – Short Messaging Service

TCP – Transmission Control Protocol

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Liquefied petroleum gas(LPG)detection is very important because gas is not only an explosive but also acts as an asphyxiant. It can therefore cause serious harm to your health, your family health and your homes. Liquefied petroleum gas detection was pioneered in the twentieth century by coal miners who used canary birds that would pass out if there were any spike in the amount of methane in the atmosphere. Thankfully, methods of LPG gas detection have moved on from this primitive means of highlighting its presence in the air. There are now a number of methods and devices you can use for LPG gas detection. Let us briefly look at why the gas poses such a threat to human health.

The use of liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in the energy sector is rapidly increasing day by day because of its properties like high calorific value, low smoke and less soot. These days LPG is most widely used in automobiles, homes and industries. The LPG or Natural gas is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases like propane, butane. Due to these properties of LPG or Natural gas, the leakage of these gases is a serious concern, as it results in serious threats to living beings. The worldwide natural gas or LPG transportation is done by the cylinders and high pressurized gas pipe lines.

In the course of transportation, storage or usage, unwanted leaks arise due to mishandling, ageing, accidents, vandalism.

LPG can lead to explosions in coal shafts, the gas trapped in the rock can be released as a result of mining and also fires in landfill sites as a result of a process known as methanogenesis. In the home, LPG is used for cooking. In advanced countries where gas tunnels pass close to sewer pipes, there is also a risk of LPG leaking into your home from sewer pipes.

LPG in the atmosphere is dangerous because our lungs only function normally when the atmospheric concentration of oxygen is more than twenty per cent. If the level falls below this as a result of it being replaced by LPG, it can trigger asphyxiation and if undetected will ultimately lead to death. Let us now turn to the various methods of methane gas detection.

LPG leakage has been responsible for several fire outbreaks, in Nigeria, along the Lagos-Ibadan expressway, on the 9th of June 2012, a petrol tanker exploded and left several dead and many wounded. In a survey of burns conducted by (A.O Oladele&J.K Olabanji, 2010) 50% of burns in Nigeria have resulted from leakages resulting from leak in gas storage containers, tankers and petrol containers. LPG spillage has also resulted in severe environmental pollution seepage of spilled fuels into the soil and groundwater and has bad effect on drinking water, aquatic plants and animals, and has lead major oil companies to pay huge settlement fees. To avoid these situations a number of efforts have been devoted to develop a reliable technique for detecting LPG leakage.

 A response to the stated problem is to develop a system that warns the user by text messages.  This system is very important because it provides real time monitoring of the LPG leakage, and can help in early detection of leakage before it becomes fatal. It will help in reducing the spillages, fire outbreaks that occur from LPG leakage. The advantages of these systems are low cost, low power absorption, low maintenance and suitable for real time data defective of potential risk area. An economic embedded system based gas leakage detector is design in using MQ_6 gas sensor.  This project provides a cost effective and high sensitive embedded system based solution for LPG gas leakage detection in automobiles, homes and industries. The system uses MQ_6 gas sensor which detect the gas leakage and alerts the consumer by sending an SMS to configured mobile number with the help of a GSM module. .

 This chapter discusses the project background, the problem of theproject, the objectives of the project, project scope and applications of the project.

1.2    PROBLEM STATEMENT

With the ever increasing demand for LPG as a source of energy for plants, equipments and the ever increasing value of LPG, carelessness, vandalism and accidents has lead to the demand for a system that monitors real time values of LPG content in the atmosphere.

In satisfying the demand for monitoring, questions from consumers and stakeholders as to if locations, pipelines, storage areas can be monitored from places far from the control room.

A systematic solution to this particular problem is developing a system that analyses the value of LPG in the atmosphere, compares it with the set threshold value, and communicate with the third party (control room or consumer). To accomplish this, a system capable of monitoring liquefied petroleum gas through a gas sensor and sending messages to the specified number without any time delay if there is gas leakage. This research will also include the factors that will affect the system’s performance and ways to mitigate them to ensure maximum accuracy.

1.3    AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this project is to Design and Construct a Microcontroller Based Liquefied Petroleum Gas Detectionsystem using GSM Module, a system capable of detecting if there is gas leakage and sends messages to specified number informing them about the leakage without any time delay.

This design work was achieved by using a gas sensor which monitor and detect if there is a gas leakage, and a microcontroller which is programmed to send the necessary information to a GSM module and the information is send to a specified number. The system also has a backup battery to keep it working when there is power failure.  

1.4         SCOPE OF PROJECT

This project work will only send text message to the specified number, as its method of monitoring. The project work will only study and identify conditions affecting the implementation of the project.

1.5     APPLICATIONS

This project is applicable in following fields:  Domestic gas leakage detector, Industrial Combustible gas detector, Portable gas detector, homes, factories, LPG storage, gas cars, hotels etc

1.6OUTLINE OF REMAINING CHAPTERS

Below is a brief summary of what the remaining chapters contain:

Chapter 2: This chapter cover the analysis of existing system and a brief review of the principles behind the system.

Chapter 3:This chapter covers the methodology, design calculation and the mode of operation.

Chapter 4: This chapter covers the construction of this work, testing, results and observations.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation which will contain problems encounteredand recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SYSTEM

Several research work has been done has on LPG leakage detection system. Stated below are some of the work done and basic principles behind them. A survey on these techniques has been done in (Pal-Stefan Murvay& Ioan Silea, 2012). For pipe encased gas pressure label line a study on the existing method of gas leakage has been done in (J. D. Piper, 1948) and adopted a method from the existing method which consists of three steps but these steps are totally dependent on the structure and joint of the pipe.

High pressurized pipe leak can also be detected by chaos information criteria in (Tetsuji Tani, 2006) andpressure decay method as described in (Niu Huachang et al, 2012). However the drawback is that the system based on chaos information criteria is based on sound data which is more sensitive to environment temperature causes an error in identifying the gas leakage in the system. This two systems are based on mass flow balance equation, which consists in balancing the flow at the boundaries plus the variation of the line pack(LP) in the pipes. A flexible, reliable, smart gas detection system is implemented as reported in the literature of (Dipanjan Bhattacharjee, et al. 2011). The main advantage of this system is that the sensor node can be configured remotely from the base station without altering hardware components. The background noise problem is eliminated by using Kalman Filter in (Zhang Sheng, 2004).

For high pressure natural pressure gas transportation a linear parameter varying (LPV) modelling and identification approach to leakage detection is done in (Paulo Lopes dos Sentos etal, 2011;  P. Lopes dos Sentos 2010)

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS LEAKAGE DETECTOR USING GSM MODULE



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