FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF PREVENTION OF MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION (PMTCT)... SERVICES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTE-NATAL CLINIC IN UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR TEACHING HOSPITAL (UCTH)
This study sought to assess the factors that influence the utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in the antenatal clinics at the University of Calabar Teaching Healthcare (UCTH), Calabar. The specific objectives of the study were: to assess the level of knowledge about PMTCT services, determine the socio-economic factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services, and identify the cultural/religious factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH. Three research questions were raised and a hypothesis formulated to guide the study as follows: There is no significant relationship between the level of knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women. The study was descriptive research where 85 pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinics in UCTH were selected through the purposive sampling technique. Data were collected by administering the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using frequency tables and percentages, the findings of the study revealed that: Majority of the respondents have good knowledge about PMTCT services. The socio-economic factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women were: stigmatization and discrimination by healthcare personnel; dependence of women on their husbands to make healthcare decisions; distance to PMTCT facilities; unavailability of PMTCT services and attitude of health personnel (nurses) towards people living with HIV. Cultural/religious beliefs do not hinder the utilization of PMTCT services. The hypothesis was tested for significance at 0.05 level and 1 degree of freedom, using the Chi-Square (X2) analysis. The result showed that the calculated value 55.45 is higher than the critical value (3.84). Thus, the null hypothesis was rejected, indicating that there is a significant relationship between the level of knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women. Based on the findings, a conclusion was drawn. It was recommended amongst others that: there is a need for the involvement of the stakeholders in the healthcare system in bridging the gap between knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women.
Table of ContentsTitle page - - - - - - - - - - iCertification- - - - - - - - - - iiDedication- - - - - - - - - - - iiiAcknowledgement- - - - - - - - - ivAbstract - - - - - - - - - - vTable of contents- - - - - - - - - - viList of tables- - - - - - - - - - ix
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the study- - - - - - - - -11.2 Statement of problems - - - - - - - -21.3 Purpose of the study- - - - - - - - -31.4 Objectives of the study- - - - - - - - -31.5 Research questions- - - - - - - - -41.6 Hypothesis- - - - - - - - - - -41.7 Scope of the study - - - - - - - - -41.8 Significance of the study- - - - - - - -41.9 Limitations- - - - - - - - - - -51.10 Operational definition of terms- - - - - - - -5CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Theoretically- - - - - - - - - -62.1.2 Knowledge about prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) among pregnant women- - - - - - - - -102.1.3 Factors influencing utilization of PMTCT- - - - - 12 2.2 Conceptual framework- - - - - - - - -19
CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGY3.1Research design- - - - - - - - - -223.2 Research setting- - - - - - - - - -223.3 Research population- - - - - - - - -233.3.1 Target population- - - - - - - - - -233.3.2 Accessible population- - - - - - - - -233.4.1 Sample Size- - - - - - - - - -233.4.2 Sampling technique- - - - - - - - -233.5 Instruments for data collection- - - - - - - -24 3.6.1 Validity of the instrument- - - - - - - -243.6.2 Reliability of the instrument- - - - - - - -24 3.7 Method of Data Collection- - - - - - - -253.8 Method of data analysis- - - - - - - - -253.9 Ethical considerations- - - - - - - - -25
CHAPTER FOURDATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS4.1 Socio-Demographic Variables- - - - - - - -264.2 Results for Research Questions- - - - - - - -284.3 Result of Research Hypothesis- - - - - - - -34
CHAPTER FIVEDISCUSSION OF FINDING5.1 Discussion of Findings- - - - - - - - -365.1.1 The knowledge of pregnant women in UCTH about prevention and control of HIV/AIDS.- - - - - - - - - - -365.1.2 Socio-economic factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women.- - -- - - - - - - -375.1.3 Cultural/religion factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH.- - - - - - - -38 5.1.4 Relationship between level of knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women- - - - - - - - -395.2 Summary- - - - - - - - - - -395.3 Conclusion- - - - - - - - - - -415.4 Recommendations- - - - - - - - - -41REFERENCESAPPENDIX i (QUESTIONNAIRE)APPENDIX ii (LETTER OF INTRODUCTION)
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the studyThe greatest challenge to humankind in the 21st century is the epidemic of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) is the causative organism of AIDS which was first discovered in the year 1981. Despite years of campaigns, advocacy, control programmes, and awareness exercises taken to curb HIV/AIDS spread, there is still a worrisome rate of increase of the infection. According to UNAIDS (2006), about 33.3 million people are estimated to live with the Human immune Deficiency virus globally; 22.5 million of this population are from sub-Saharan Africa.Over 55% of these people living with HIV are women of reproductive age who become pregnant. HIV infection in women of reproductive age increases the epidemic of peri-natal HIV (UNAIDS, 2006). About a 2.5million children live with HIV globally and 1.8million are from sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, over 1700 children become infected with HIV daily (UNAIDS 2006). In Nigeria, about 69,400 children became infected with HIV through mother-to-child transmission in 2011. This has led to a rise in the total number of children living with HIV in the country to an unprecedented 440,000 (UNAIDS, 2012). Majumali, (2011), opined that Virtually all HIV infection in children occurs following mother-to-child transmission during the antenatal period (pregnancy), intranasal period (labour/delivery), and the post-natal period. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is about 5-10% during pregnancy, 10-20% during labour, and 10-15% during breastfeeding. There is an estimation of about 20-45% chances of a baby born to an HIV-positive mother becoming infected without effective interventions to the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. With effective interventions, such as the use of antiretroviral drugs both for mother formula feeding, etc., the risk of mother-to-child transmission has been shown to reduce by 5%. Primary preventive measures (prevention of new infections in parents, avoiding new pregnancies in HIV infected women) and secondary preventive measures (preventing transmission of HIV from an infected mother to her infant) are the three approaches in reducing mother to child transmission (MTCT) promoted by the World Health Organisation (WHO), (McIntyres $ Gray 2004).New approaches in preventing MTCT to <2% includes use of combined anti-retroviral prophylaxis, elective caesarean section and by avoiding prolonged breastfeeding or mixed feeding. In Nigeria, despite these preventives measures of mother to child transmission, research has shown poor utilization of these services. Thus, the need for this study.
1.2 Statement of problems Mother-to-child transmission of HIV has a lot of impact on the health of the mother and infant including the economy of the country. MTCT increases the prevalence of HIV in infants thereby resulting in increased infant and maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite the introduction of improved preventive services of MTCT of HIV over the years, HIV infections via MTCT (vertically/ perinatal transmission) are still on the increase in Nigeria. In 2011, about 440,000 infants were infected with HIV (UNAIDS, 2012). During the researcher’s clinical experience in the antenatal clinic UCTH, it was observed that despite the availability of this prevention of MTCT services, very few women utilized the services. For this reason, this pertinent question formed the birth rock of this study: What then are the factors that influence the utilization of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services?
1.3 Purpose of the study The purpose of the study is to ascertain the factors influencing the utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in antenatal clinics in UCTH.
1.4 Objectives of the studyThe specific objectives of the study are:1. To assess the level of knowledge about PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH.2. To determine the socio-economic factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH.3. To ascertain the cultural/religious factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH.
1.5 Research questions1. What is the level of knowledge about PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH?2. To what extent do socioeconomic factors influencing the utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH?3. What are the cultural/religious factors influencing the utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH?
1.6 Hypothesis There is no significant relationship between the level of knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women.
1.7 Scope of the study The study is delimited to pregnant women that attended the antenatal clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital.
1.8 Significance of the study It is very important that factors influencing the utilization of PMTCT services in a resource-poor setting should be studied. It is important in the context of cross river state where health resources are unevenly distributed between rural and urban areas including distribution of health care providers.Practically: The findings of this study will be handy for canceling purposes in ensuring increased utilization of PMTCT services.Research: The result of this study will increase the existing knowledge on the utilization of PMTCT services and will also serve as research as a resource material for further research work.Nurse/midwife: The findings of this study will help to improve the attitude of Nurses in the delivery of PMTCT services to ensure its utilization by pregnant women thereby decreasing the rate of MTCT.Government: The findings of this study will help improve policies on findings and distribution of PMTCT services in both rural and urban areas to ensure its utilization.
1.9 Limitations The major limitation was encountered during this study because the Teaching Hospital was on strike and many patients were not (accessed) reached. Also, some respondents refused to divulge their information for confidential purposes.
1.10 Operational definition of termsFactors: are variables that influence utilization of PMTCT servicesUtilization: refers to the process of using PMTCT servicesPMTCT Services: are services that aims at offering preventive measures towards mother-to-child transmission.Antenatal: refers to a period from conception to the onset of labour.