The study sought to determine the influence of family responsibilities on student’s academic performance in Social Studies in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population for the study is estimated to be about 864 junior secondary 2 students in Ikot Ekpene metropolis. The sample size of the study consisted of 200 students selected from four senior schools participated in the study. Data was collected with the aid of a well constructed 20 item questionnaire titled “Family Responsibility Questionnaire (FRQ) and aggregate score from the selected school. The instrument had the reliability coefficient of .81 when tested with Cronbach Alpha statistics. The data obtained were analyzed using related t-test. The findings of the study indicated that provision of learning materials, opportunity to study, parental commitment and payment of school fees influence the academic performance of students in Social Studies. The study concluded that family responsibilities influence students’ performance in Social Studies in junior secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Metropolis of Akwa Ibom State. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that Parents should provide learning materials for their children in     order to improve their performance in     academic works. More so, students’ should be given time and opportunity to review school work, study, go to libraries and resource centres after     school in order to develop their academic performance.


Chapter    Title                                     Page

        Cover Page    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    i

Title Page    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    ii

        Declaration     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iii

        Certification    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iv

        Dedication    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    v

        Acknowledgements    -    -    -    -    -    vi

        Abstract    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    vii

Table of Contents    -    -    -    -    -    -    viii

List of Tables         -    -    -    -    -    xi

List of Appendices     -    -    -    -    -    xii


1.1    Background of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    1

1.2    Statement of the Problem    -    -    -    -    -    -    5

1.3    Purpose of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    6

1.4    Significance of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    6

1.5    Research Questions    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    8

1.6    Research Hypotheses    -    -    -    -    -    -    8

1.7    Limitation    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    9

1.8    Delimitation    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    10

1.9    Basic Assumptions of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    10

1.10        Definition of Terms    -    -    -    -    -    -    10


2.1      Theoretical Framework     -    -    -    -    -    -    12

2.1.1    Role construction theory    -    -    -    -    -    -    13

2.1.2    Attachment parental theory    -    -    -    -    -    15

2.1.3    Dave’s theory of parenting    -    -    -    -    -    16

2.2    Conceptual Framework    -    -    -    -    -    -    18

2.2.1    Concept of Family    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    18

2.2.2    Provision of Learning Materials and Students’ Academic

    Performance    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    20

2.2.3    Opportunity to Study and Academic Performance    -    -    21

2.2.4    Parent’s Involvement and Academic Performance    -    -    22

2.2.5    Payment of Fees and Academic Performance    -    -    25

2.4    Summary of Related Literature    -    -    -    -    -    28


3.1    Design of the Study     -    -    -    -    -    -    30

3.2       Area of study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    31

3.3    Population of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    32

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique    -    -    -    -    33

3.5    Instrumentation      -    -    -    -    -    -    -    33

3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument     -    -    -    -    -    34

3.5.2     Reliability of the Instrument-    -    -    -    -    -    34

3.6     Administration of the Instrument-    -    -    -    -    35

3.7     Method of Data Analysis    -    -    -    -    -    -    35


                   DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 

4.1    Hypothesis by Hypothesis Testing    -    -    -    -    36

4.1.1    Null Hypothesis 1    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    36

4.1.2    Null Hypothesis 2    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    37

4.1.3    Null Hypothesis 3    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    38

4.1.4    Null Hypothesis 4    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    39

4.2    Findings of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    40

4.3    Discussion of Findings     -    -    -    -    -    -    41



5.1    Summary of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    46

5.2    Conclusion     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    47

5.5    Recommendations    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    47

5.6    Suggestions for Further Studies    -    -    -    -    -    48





1.1 Background of the Study

    The family is extremely the most important group to the society and most prominent in our lives. It is our first home where love, commitment, marriage and kinship links us closely with other family members, be it nuclear where father, mother and children predominate or extended family system. They all have great influence on the academic performance of children.

    With the family, the children interact with each other on daily basis and learn most of the things they did not know, imitate their uncles, parents in their learning experiences. All these interactions exert a kind of influence on the academic performance of the student in most cases, family setup, be it extended or nuclear influences the child’s academic performance.

    Heredity is a factor that determines the intelligence of children. The home also provides a conducive environment for learning to take place. If these are affected, the students’ academic performance will improve to a standard expected by them in the society.    The family is regarded as a fundamental unit in the society and most kinship system. It is an important unit in terms of social functions of the family (Alhassan, 2009). But the education of the child first takes place in the home. A child receives the basic education at home where he learns moves to become an important member of the society. One must note that the families are of different types. One can identify single parental homes, polygamous homes, homes where parents are of high educational and economic status and those where the parents’ educational and economic status is low.

    The type of education a child receives at home is different from one home to another and this to a great extent influences a child’s personality and ability (Acus, 2011). The family is a divine institution and a foundation for all that is noble in a man whereby the interest and aspirations of the students are influenced on the following: The parents’ socio-economic status, the parents’ occupation, the students’ attitude towards academic activities, the parents’ level of income etc.

    Also in the interim, parents are finding various ways of enhancing the academic performance of their children in terms of their responsibilities and roles towards their children academics. It was therefore necessary for the researcher to move a step forward, in order to find out more about homes and environment in relation to learning and behaviour, many steps have been taken to improve students’ academic performance or standards. Arball (2007) opined that apart from giving teacher education a priority, training and posting high qualified teachers in vary field of schools, government has procured many introductory technologies and sciences equipment for almost every school under the federal aid scheme, the federal government has sent many copies of textbooks in various discipline to schools.

It is observed that parental responsibilities affects students performance in junior secondary schools. The parents have an important impact on their children’s academic performance in social studies and other courses. What the students’ are taught at home, how the parents/family maturates them, the assistance and opportunity given to the students to study contributes to the students’ success or failure.     Harderves (2008) noted that parental responsibilities such as: provision of learning materials (writing material and reading materials) affects the performance of students either positively or negatively, opportunity to study, parental commitment and paying of school fees promptly affects the students’ performance in schools also. Another factor that influences the performance of students as family responsibility is maturation and encouragement towards their children education.

Most parents lack interest or show children in school activities little or no interest in how their children perform in school. Some do not assist their children in school activities such as: home work or assignments home lessons. It has also been observed that some parents do not give their children opportunity to read (study when they come back from school).

Excessive involvement of children in domestic activities may affect the performance of the child in school. More family financial resources, which are associated with parents’ occupation and educational status often, imply increased both in home and in school. This research aims at investigating how home responsibilities affect students’ performance in social studies in junior secondary school in Ikot Ekpene metropolis. It will also focus on four variables such as provision of learning materials, opportunity to study, parental commitment and payment of school fees.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

    There is an unprecedented poor performance among students in Nigeria secondary schools in most school subject including social studies. This has been of great concern to governments, students and mostly the parents and others particularly when the output is weighted against the input made into the educational system. Many reasons have been advanced for poor performance of students such as; parents attitude towards the education of their children, parents’ social- economics background, relationship between parent and their children educational level. Other reasons are parental commitment, opportunity to study, provision of learning materials etc.

    The family responsibility and the students’ academic performance in Social Studies in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area is investigated in this study specifically, the study attempts to determine whether the parents do influence the performance of their children in Social Studies in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.

1.3     Purpose of the Study.

    This study investigates family responsibilities and social studies performance in junior secondary school studies in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Specifically the study aims at the following objectives:

1.     To determine the difference in students’ performance in Social Studies based on parental provision of learning materials.

2.     To examine the difference in students’ performance in Social Studies based on asses time.

3.     To determine the difference in students’ performance in Social Studies based on parental engagement.

4.     To determine the differences in students’ performance in Social Studies based on payment of school fees.

1.4    Significance of the Study

    The study of this nature is not without benefits to people in different walks of life, especially those who have something to do with children’s upbringing and development. This study also highlights an understanding of the difference among learners’ in terms of provision of learning materials, opportunity to study, payment of fees and other academic fees, and parental commitment.

          This study will be of significance to parents, teachers, counselors and government to the parents, this study outlines the family responsibilities towards the child’s academics, parents will know the basic personal needs of the child, which will affect the performance of the child positively in school. It will also be useful to parents and guardian in the way to prepare and equip children for school and the way they socialize.

    To teachers, this study will provide them with the appropriate teaching methods and techniques to enable them carry every student along especially those who are not able to buy textbooks, writing materials and pay lesson fees.

To counsellors, they will acquire the knowledge of the basic academic challenges of students and will be able to counsel parents and guidance, to provide these needs to their children and wards in order to impact positively in their academic performances.

    Apart from serving as a reference for further studies, researchers in related fields members of the society who will be able to review the standard they set for their children. They will find this research useful in their search for factors that militates against students’ academic performance in order to find solutions for them and thus, lay a dependable educational base for the country.

1.5    Research Questions

    The following research questions were formulated in order to guide the research:

1.     Does the provision of learning materials influence students’ academic performance in junior secondary school?

2.     Does study time influence students’ performance in junior secondary school?

3.     Does parental engagement influence students’ performance in junior secondary school?

4.     Does timely payment of school fees influence students’ performance in junior secondary school?

1.6    Research Hypotheses

    The following null hypotheses postulated to guide the study:

1.     There is no significant influence of provision of learning materials on junior secondary students’ performance in social studies.

2.     There is no significant influence of study time on junior secondary students’ performance in social studies.

3.     There is no significant influence of parental engagement on junior secondary students’ performance in social studies.

4.     There is no significant influence of payment of school fees on junior secondary students’ performance in social studies.

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

    The scope of the study covers only junior secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area during the third term 2018/2019 academic session. Many factors could contribute to students’ performance in Social Studies, but for the purpose of the study, only provisions for learning materials, opportunity to study, parental commitment, prompt payment of school fees were selected for the investigation.

1.8    Limitation

    The study was limited by paucity of research materials, time constraints and shortage of finance. It was not possible to ascertain directly whether respondents were honest in their responses, but since they were assured that their responses would be treated in confidence, it was assured that they responded honestly to make the data generalized.

1.9     Basic Assumptions of the Study

    It is assumed that the provision of learning materials, study time, parental engagement and time payment of school fees either positively  or negatively affects performance of students in Social Studies in junior secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area .

1.10     Definition of Terms   

Family: A family refers to the basic unit in the organization of the society, composed of persons related by marriage or blood who live together as household.

Family Responsibilities: Family responsibilities refer to the roles and functions the family plays or does social studies.

Social Studies: Social Studies is a subject in the Nigerian school subject, usually taught from JSS1 – JSS3.

Subject Performance: Social studies performance is defend as the school grade in the students’ annual performance promotion examination in social studies from JSS-1 to JSS-3.

Learning Materials: These are equipments that aid the students in learning e.g text books and writing materials.

Study Time: This is a time a student devotes for his/her studies.

Parental Engagement: This is the involvement of the parent in their children’s educational activities.     




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