THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES ON THE GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM SEEDLINGS


CONSEQUENCES OF PREMARITAL SEXUAL ACTIVITIES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KWARA STATE).  

ABSTRACT

The study is focused on the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. 

A total of 200 respondents were randomly selected from Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. The instrument used was a questionnaire titled. Consequences of Premarital Sexual Activities Questionnaire (CPSAQ) which was developed by the researcher. It consists of two sections: (A and B). section A consisted of items that gave the personal data of respondents, while B contained items on the consequences of premarital sexual activities. 

The results of the study indicated that the consequences of premarital sexual activities mostly includes dropout as a result of teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortion single parenting, early marriage, increase in the rate of contraceptive drug and abandoning of one’s responsibility was considered the least. 

Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that counsellors should be involved in enlightenment programme to sensitize Nigerian adolescents towards sexual behaviours strict discipline in the home should be encouraged. Sex education should be included into the guidance and counselling.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Pagei

Approval Pageii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract viii

Table of Contents ix

List of Tables xiii

CHAPTER ONE 

INTRODUCTION 

Background to the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 4

Research Questions 7

Research Hypothesis 8

Purpose of Study 9

Significance of the Study 9

Operational Definition of Terms 10

Scope of the Study 12

CHAPTER TWO 

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 

Introduction 13

Concept of Premarital Sex 14

Causes of Premarital Sexual Activities among Students16

Lack of Sexual Educative Material 18

Prevalence of Premarital Sex 21

Adolescents Sexual Development 24

Adolescent Sexual Behaviour 30

Sexual Activity/Sexual Relationship 33

Percentage of Adolescents who reported having 

Premarital Sex by 19 Years 35

Adolescent Pregnancy 35

Effects of Premarital Sex 37

Solutions to Premarital Sex 40

Summary of the Review of Related Literature 42

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY 

Introduction 44

Research Design 44

Sample and Sampling Technique 44

Instrumentation 45

Validity of the Instrument 46

Reliability of the Instrument 47

Administration of the Instrument 47

Method of Data Analysis 48

CHAPTER FOUR 

RESULTS

Introduction 49

Descriptive Analysis 49

Hypothesis Testing 55

Summary of Results 59

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Introduction 61

Discussions 61

Conclusions 66

Recommendations 67

Implication of the Study 68

Suggestion for further Studies 69

References 70

Appendix 73

LIST OF TABLES 

Table 1: Distribution of Respondents by Gender 50

Table 2: Distribution of Respondents by Age 50

Table 3: Distribution of Respondents by Religion 51

Table 4: Distribution of Respondents by Type of 

School 52

Table 5: Means and Rank Order on Consequences 

of Premarital Sexual Activities among 

Secondary School Students 53

Table 6: Means, Standard Deviations and t-values 

on the consequences of premarital 

sexual activities as expressed by secondary 

school students on the basis of gender 55

Table 7: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the

consequences of premarital sexual activities 

as expressed by secondary school students 

on the basis of Age 56

Table 8: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the

consequences of premarital sexual activities 

as expressed by secondary school students 

on the basis of Religion 57

Table 9: Means, Standard Deviations and t-values 

on the consequences of premarital 

sexual activities as expressed by secondary 

school students on the basis of Type of 

School 58

CHAPTER ONE 

INTRODUCTION 

Background to the Study 

The rate of sexual irresponsibility especially among youth seem to be on the increase. Adeoye (2006) asserted that modern day Nigerian have made sex one of the most discussed subject, however, our forefathers pretended as if sex does no exist by placing some taboos on it. Where as, modern Nigerians pretend that nothing else exists other than sex. Increasing rate in teenage and youth sexual activities can be sustained by numerous reports of unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortion and dumping of unwanted babies. 

The present time can be described as a period of “sex explosion” in which youths are enjoying unprecedented ‘sex boom” and ‘sex escapades (Achiwizies 1990) further emphasized that sex is commonly practiced and no more a big deal. This is why it happens anywhere be it in the office, under a tree, inside the car or even in the classroom. It could emphatically be said that youth of nowadays engage in premarital sexual activities with limited knowledge of what is involved and its consequences. 

In pursuit of education, students leave their homes for school and are no longer under the strict supervision of their parents. Most of them get exposed to modern lifestyle more than ever and due to peer group influence, they engage in premarital sexual affairs which they regard as due marks of civilization. 

Since every child in secondary school is believed to be teenager and classified as adolescent, therefore interest and conception had been that adolescence is a period of intense. Importance of purity before marriage is fast dying out in Nigeria. Adolescents were viewed across cultural and social boundaries and the outcome is likely to exhibit similar behaviour. Gwander (2001) rightly pointed out that the meaning of sex to various people depends upon the social context in which it develops. Adolescents are changing in their attitude towards sexual behaviour especially attitudes of adolescents today and those adolescents of twenty or thirty years ago, there will be a significant distinction. Adolescents of today seem to value sexual activities more than their counterparts of yester years. Adolescents on the other hand see sex as a way of behaving like adults and exercising themselves to explore and understanding their own bodies. 

Hyzer (2001) holds that adolescents of age 17 to 18 years are termed to have reached reproductive maturity. This is about the time the adolescent become intellectually mature and set their future goals. But situation is changing gradually with our adolescents. Nowadays sexual maturity and unset of sexual interest precede the intellectual maturity. One also has the feelings that since the advent of various contraceptives, there has been an increasing pressure on youths especially females to be involved in casual sex. 

One of the factors that enhance “sexual revolution” is social change and modernization which is associated with educational opportunities, increase in the percentage of sexual activities among females especially unmarried adolescents, delay age at marriage and relaxation of traditional family’s emphasis on virginity. The consequences of the gender sexual behaviour include: premature pregnancy, abortion, venereal diseases, early marriage, HIV/AIDs infection and premature death.     

Some adolescents found adult sanction against their sexuality difficult because they see their behaviour as fashion and act of socialization. Providing authentic sex information through counselling and sex education is an aspect that ought to engage society’s attention. 

Statement of the Problem 

In Nigeria, a number of studies Adegboye, J.O. (2008), Anafi, J.K. (1993) Bakare, E.G. (2006) to mention but a few have shown that sexual activities among students or young ones particularly the unmarried is not something to be taken with levity but handled with urgent attention. 

Many Nigerian teenage girls about 60% according to Kapan (1999) are victims of premarital sexual activity, unmarried pregnancy and babies. They get scared and try all sorts of possible means of getting rid of unwanted and unclaimed pregnancy the result is usually very fatal. It was found by Bakare (2006) that most of our teenagers and youth lack the proper parental upbringing right at home which is supposed to serve as first contact of moral reformation in our society. Above 60% of Nigerian parents do not take good and proper care of their children which exposes the adolescent to moral degeneration. They fail to give what is required of them as parents to their children at home. Some female children are subjected to premarital sex in the hands of human traffickers who perpetrate their obnoxious business with the knowledge of the parents. 

The young females are lured into premarital sexual activities through prostitution because they are not under the supervision of their parents. About 30% of these female teenagers are raped which often lead to unwanted pregnancy or other consequences such as AIDS, STD among others. Bakare (2006). Its medical and psychological implication in the life of the adolescent girl such as early pregnancy, Rector Vaginal Fistula (RVF), Vesico Vaginal Fistula (VVF) is often associated with labour. These problems led to the investigation into the factors influencing premarital sexual activities of secondary school students in Ilorin West Local Government Area. 

To the best of the researcher’s knowledge, none of the other researchers have considered this topic: consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. 

Research Questions

The following questions are asked to guide the conduct of the study. 

1. What are the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students in Ilorin West Local Government? 

2. Will there by any significant difference in the consequence of premarital sexual activities as expressed by respondents on the basis of gender?

3. Will there by any significant difference in the consequence of premarital sexual activities as expressed by respondents on the basis of age. 

4. Will there by any significant difference in the consequence of premarital sexual activities as expressed by respondents on the basis of school type. 

5. Will there by any significant difference in the consequence of premarital sexual activities as expressed by respondents on the basis of religion. 

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses are formulated to guide the study. 

1. There is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students on the basis of gender.

2. There is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students on the basis of age. 

3. There is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students on the basis of school type. 

4. There is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students on the basis of religion.

Purpose of the Study 

The purpose of the study is to investigate the factors influencing premarital sexual activities among secondary school students. Also it will investigate the variables of age, gender, religion and school type. 

The study would as well conclude its investigation by suggesting some probable solutions to premarital sexual activities among students especially in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. 

Significance of the Study

The present study is very significant because the findings would be of great opportunity for the government to plan a comfortable and favourable environment for female children in various schools. 

Another significance of this study is that it would serve as challenge to parents to pay great attention on their children by keeping watch on the type of friends their children keep when they go out and return home every day and check them whenever any act of misbehaviour is noticed in the children’s way of life. More so, these study would educate the parents, teachers and school authorities on the need and importance of showing love, affection, interest and acceptance to the children and students both at home and at school.  

It would also serve as a source of enlightenment for teenagers, especially why they need to abstain from premarital sexual activities.

Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined operationally as used in the study. 

Abortion: Abortion is deliberate termination of pregnancy. 

Adolescence: The transitional period from childhood to adult hood. 

Adolescent: - Is a young person or teenager, who is no longer a child and also not yet an adult. 

Premarital Sex: Premarital sex is a sexual activity that exists before marriage. 

Prostitution: - Is an unlawful sexual activity with the opposite sex purposely in exchange for money. 

Parents: - Parents are male and female adults who have given birth to a child or children. 

Taboo: - Taboo is a social rule that some words, subjects or actions must be avoided because they are considered as offence. 

Teenage: - This is a period of sexual actualization when the children go through development of secondary sexual characteristics. 

Teenager: The teenagers are male and female children whose bodies are maturing and actively sensitive to external stimulus.    

Scope of the Study 

This study was conducted to investigate the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students in Ilorin West Local Government Area where two hundred (200) respondents were sampled for the study. 

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THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES ON THE GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM SEEDLINGS



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