THE EFFECT OF BODY WEIGHT ON BLOOD PRESSURE OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS.
CHAPTER ONE 1.1. INTRODUCTION.
In adults of Western societies the positive relationship between blood pressure and body weight has often been demonstrated both cross- sectionally and longitudinally. This correlation is even stronger in children and early adulthood. In most studies children, the association between age and blood pressure disappear after controlling weight. Association must be differentiated from causation. It has however been shown in several intervention studies that treatment of obesity by weight loss decreases blood pressure substantially both on hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Although combining results from several intervention trials is difficult. This is the only practical way to get an overall estimate of the hypotensive response to be expected from weight reduction.
In randomised controlled intervention studies, conducted in Obese hypertensive patients and reviewed in the present meta- analysis, a decrease in body weight by 1kg resulted in areduction of systolic and diastolic pressure by 1.2 and 1.0mmHg respectively. Blood pressure generally decreased before normal weight was achieved and remained reduced as long as there was no marked regain in the body weight. Although a decrease in salt intake during dieting may contribute to the blood pressure lowering, effect of weight reduction, also other mechanism such as a reduction in plasma renin activity.
Hypertension in Africa is a widespread problem of immense economic importance because of its high prevalence in urban areas, it frequent under-diagnosis and the severity of its complications. (Opie and Yackoob, 2005). It is becoming a public health emergency worldwide, especially in developing countries where studies has projected an increase by 80% in the number of hypertensive patients by the year 2025.
In Africa, more than 30million people have hypertension. World Health Organization ( WHO) predicts that if there is nothing done about it, by 2020 three quarters of all death in Africa will be attributable to hypertension. (Kearney et al 2005). In Cameroon, surveys on hypertension reported a prevalence varying from 12%-22% among those above age 15years in 1998 and an estimated prevalence of 24% in 2003. (Mbanya et. al. 1998).
Several epidemiological studies have shown that, blood pressure is strongly related to body weight, and that control of obesity is a critical components of prevention and control of hypertension. (Kummayinka, 1997).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Obesity increases the risk of the development of hypertension. Therefore, over 60% of overweight people have the tendency of developing hypertension. Treatment of hypertension is known to refuse the risk of occurrence of cardiovascular illnesses. Hence early detection, treatment and control of hypertension are the key components of the integrated management of cardiovascular risks. Research has shown that decrease in body weight reduces blood pressure eventually and this helps to decrease the risk of developing hypertension. Decrease in body weight may also help in preserving the life of hypertensive patients.
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objectives of the study is to deduce the effect of body weight on blood pressure of hypertensive patients.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the relationship between body weight and blood pressure?
2. What is the effect of body weight on blood pressure?
3. What is the effect of obesity on blood pressure of hypertensive patients?
4. What is the effects of weight reduction on blood pressure of hypertensive patients?
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The rate at which the percentage of hypertensive patients keep increasing in Nigeria is very high. This prompt many reserchers to work on the possible means or ways that hypertension can be prevented. There is need to know the effect of body weight on blood pressure of hypertensive patients. There is need to know if decrease in body weight decreases blood pressure and if it helps to decrease totally the risk of developing hypertension.
1.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research focus on the effect of body weight on blood pressure of hypertensive patients.
1. Kearney P. M., Whelton M., Reynolds K., Muntner P., Whelton P.K., He J.(2005). Global burden of hypertension, Analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 365; 217-223.
2. Kummayinka S.K. (1997). The impact of obesity on hypertension management in Africa. American J. Health care Poor undeserved. PP 352-355.
3. Mbanya J.C., Minkoulou E. M., Salaha J. N., Balkaub B. (1998). The prevalence of hypertension in rural and urban Cameroon. Int. J. Epidermiol 27; 181-185.
4. Opie L. H., Yackoob K.S. (2005). Hypertension in sub- Saharan African populations. Circulation 112; 3562-3568