PREVALENCE OF SCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Urinary schistosomiasis is a common public health problem in the world caused by infection with Schistosoma haematobium . Individuals may acquire the disease during contact with water containing cercaria of the parasite . S. haematobium is responsible for majority of deaths due to schistosomiasis in the world . The disease is particularly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa where it is estimated to affect 112 million people [3,4]
S. haematobium infection causes haematuria, dysuria, lesions of the bladder, kidney failure, bladder cancer, [5–9]. Infection also interferes with nutrient uptake and can lead to undernutrition, growth and cognitive development retardation, and pose a serious threat to children’s health, education and productivity [10–13]. The disease is responsible for the death of 150,000 people in sub-Saharan Africa annually due to infection-related bladder problems [3,4].
Urinary Schistosomiasis also called Bilharzias is a parasitic disease caused by a digenetic blood fluke of the genus Schistosoma called Schistosoma haematobium. The disease is the second most prevalent neglected tropical diseases after hookworm (Hottez and Kamath, 2009) and remains an important public health problem globally especially in the Sub-Saharan African. Of the world’s 207 million estimated cases of Schistosomiasis, 93% occur in the Sub-Saharan Africa (192 million) with largest number (29 million) in Nigeria followed by United Republic of Tanzania (19million) (Hottez and Kamath, 2009). Although Schistosoma haematobium infection do not always result in clinical diseases and many infections are asymptomatic, S. haematobium infection is said to produce bladder wall pathology in approximately 18million people in Sub-Saharan African and 10million *Corresponding Author Email; [email protected] people suffer from hydronephrosis and renal failure (Van der Werf et al., 2003). A significant percentage of women and men with urinary Schistosomiasis acquire genital ulcers and other lesions (Kjetland et al., 2006). Poor reproductive health including sexual dysfunction and infertility .Genital Schistosomiasis has also been incriminated to promote horizontal transmission of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan African (Kjetland et al., 2006). In addition to the organ-specific pathology for S. haematobium infections, there is also an increasing evidence for more generalized morbidity resulting from chronic inflammation of these long-standing infections (Kjetland et al 2006, King et al., 2005). The most important are anaemia of chronic inflammation and iron deficiency anaemia, growth stunting and malnutrition among children, fatigue and diminished physical fitness and impaired cognitive developments among school children (Kjetland et al 2006, King et al., 2005). There are several factors contributing to the high rate of Schistosoma haematobium infection in developing countries. Among these are; extreme poverty, lack of knowledge of the risks, inadequate or total lack of health facilities and poor sanitary conditions in which they lead daily(Hottez and Kamath, 2009, Uneke et al., 2010).
1.2 Problem Statement
S. haematobium infection causes haematuria, dysuria, lesions of the bladder, kidney failure, bladder cancer, [5–9]. Infection also interferes with nutrient uptake and can lead to undernutrition, growth and cognitive development retardation, and pose a serious threat to children’s health, education and productivity [10–13]. Hence there is need to assess its prevalence among school children.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of the study is the prevalence of Schistosoma heamatobium among school children.
1.4 Research Question
(1) what is S. heamatobium?
(2) How is it contacted ?
(3) what is its prevalence in the population?
(4) why the need to know its prevalence among school children?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study gives a clear insight into the prevalence of Schistosoma heamatobium among school children. The findings of this research will serve as a preliminary study to help the concerned authorities know which age group among the children is at higher risk of Schistosoma heamatobium.
1.6 Scope of the study
The research focuses on the prevalence of Schistosoma heamatobium among school children.
Samples were collected from children in selected schools and there was difficulty experienced in collecting the samples because they felt reluctant to give their urine.
Anosike, JC, Nwoke, BEB, Njoku, AJ (2001). The validity of haematuria in the community diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis infections. J Helminthol. 75: 223-225. Ekpo, UF, Deile, AL, Oluwale, AS, Sam-Wobo, SO, Mafiana, CF (2010). Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool children in a rural community near Abeokuta, Nigeria. Parasites and Vectors, 3: 58. Hottez, PJ, Kamath, A (2009). Neglected tropical diseases in SubSaharan Africa: Review of their prevalence, distribution and disease burden. Plos Negl Trop Dis. 3(8):412. King, CH, Dangerfield-Cha, M (2008). The unacknowledged impact of chronic schistosomiasis, Chronic Illn. 4(1): 65. King, CH, Dickman, K, Tisch, DJ (2005). Reassessment of the cost of chronic helmintic infection: a meta-analysis of disability-related outcomes in endemic schistosomiasis. Lancet, 365(9470): 156. Kjetland, EF, Ndhlovu, PD, Gorno, E, Mduluza, T, Midzi, N, et al (2006). Association between genital schistosomiasis and HIV in rural Zimbabwean women. AIDS. 20: 593. Lyam, A (2006). Nasarawa State. In: Mamman, A. B; Oyebanji, J. O. and Fetters, S. W. (ed2s) Nigeria: A people united; A future assured, survey of States. Mellennium edition, Gabumo Press Nigeria, 2000; pp383-385 Mafiana, CF, Ekpo, UF, Ojo, DA (2003). Urinary schistosomiasis in preschool children in settlement around Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria: implication for control. Trop.Med Int Health. 8(1): 7882. Nigeria Population Commission (NPC). Swai, B, Poggensee, G, Mtweve, S, Krantz, I (2006). Female genital schistosomiasis as an evidence of a neglected cause of productive illhealth: A retrospective histopathological study from Tanzania, BMC infect. Dis. 6: 134. Uneke, C, Ugwuok-Adibuah, S, Nwakpu, K, Ngwu, B (2010). An assessment of Schistosoma haematobium infection and Urinary tract bacterial infection amongst school children in rural eastern Nigeria. The internet jou. of Laboratory medicine, 4:1 Van der Werf, MJ, de Vias, SJ, Brooker, S, Looman, CW, Nagelkerke, NJ, et al (2003). Quantification of clinical morbidity associated with schistosoma infection in Sub-Saharan Africa. Acta trop. 86(2-3): 125.
1. Steinmann P, Keiser J, Bos R, Tanner M, Utzinger J. Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006; 6:411–425. pmid:16790382
2. Inobaya MT, Olveda RM, Chau TNP, Olveda DU, Ross AGP. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis: a current perspective. Res Rep Trop Med. 2014; 5: 65–75.
3. Pennington LF, Hsieh MH. Immune Response to Parasitic Infections, Bentham e books 2014; pp. 93–124.
4. Van der Werf MJ, de Vlas SJ, Brooker S, Looman CW, Nagelkerke NJ, Habbema JD, et al. Quantification of clinical morbidity associated with schistosome infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Acta Trop. 2003; 86:125–139. pmid:12745133
5. WHO. Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis and Soil transmitted Helminthiasis- Report of a WHO Expert Committee. Tech Rep Ser. 2002; 912: 1–57.
6. Fenwick A, Savioli L, Engels D, Bergquist NR, Todd MH. Drugs for the Control of Parasitic Diseases: Current Status and Development in Schistosomiasis. Trends Parasitol. 2003; 19:509–515. pmid:14580962
7. Stephenson L. The impact of schistosomiasis on human nutrition. Parasitol. 1993; 107:S107–23.
8. Farid Z. Schistosomes with terminal-spined eggs: pathological and clinical aspects. In: Jordan P, Webbe G, Sturrock RF, editors. Human schistosomiasis. CAB International; 1993 pp.159–193.
9. Poggensee G, Feldmeier H. Female genital schistosomiasis: facts and hypotheses. Acta Trop. 2001; 79:193–210. pmid:11412803
10. Casmo V, Augusto G, Nala R, Sabonete A, Carvalho-Costa FA. The effect of hookworm infection and urinary schistosomiasis on blood hemoglobin concentration of schoolchildren living in northern Mozambique. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2014; 56(3):219–24. pmid:24879000
11. Deribew K1, Tekeste Z, Petros B, Huat LB. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013; 3(4):307–310. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60068-4. pmid:23620856
12. Sacko M, Magnussen P, Keita AD, Traoré MS, Landouré A, Doucouré A et al. Impact of Schistosoma haematobium infection on urinary tract pathology, nutritional status and anaemia in school-aged children in two different endemic areas of the Niger River Basin, Mali. Acta Trop. 2011; 120:S142–150. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.12.009. pmid:21195046
13. Koukounari A, Gabrielli AF, Toure S, Bosque-Oliva E, Zhang Y, Sellin B et al. Schistosoma haematobium infection and morbidity before and after large-scale administration of praziquantel in Burkina Faso. J Infect Dis. 2007; 196(5):659–669. pmid:17674306