IMPACTS OF HOUSING COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH (A CASE STUDY OF AJEROMI IFELODUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT LAGOS)
Housing problems in Nigeria are multi-dimensional. They occur both in the urban and rural areas. They are qualitative, quantitative, psychological and socio-cultural in nature. These problems are consequences of the inability and ineffectiveness of both the public and private sectors to meet the housing needs of the populace. As a result of this, any lasting solution to the Nigerian housing problem requires a multi- faceted approach.
Various policies aimed at alleviating these housing problems have been formulated and implemented. They have met with varying degrees of success.
After identifying the main causes of housing problems in Nigeria, this research examines the Cooperative housing Societies concept and its impact to the growth of the economy. The essential features of the concept are discussed and an evaluation is made of its impact on the housing sector in selected area of study based on various criteria. Some of these are: aims and objectives, modalities for funding, peculiarities of implementation, planning imperatives and levels of success. The research concludes by relating the experiences of these countries to the contemporary Nigerian housing situation and determining the applicability of the cooperative housing concept given the nation’s socio-economic environment.
1.1 Background to the Study
Kinnis (2002) defined, co-operative housing as a society that co-operatively owns a group of houses or flats in. which each member participates actively in all matters concerning the estate. Sazama (2000) observes that, cooperative housing is a society where members/residents jointly own their buildings, democratically control them and receive social and economic benefits accruable from living in and owing them co-operatively. Housing co-operative is a pragmatic and cost effective means of home ownership. Victor and Bilyaminu (2002) said that, co-operative housing has been tested in many nations where it has been used, to varying degrees of success and to address housing problems, therefore modifying this concept to suit Nigerians socio-cultural and socio- economic peculiarities will result in renewed hope for the average Nigerian in his quest to attain home ownership as well as reliving him from his poverty trap.
A housing cooperative, is a legal entity, usually a corporation, which owns real estate, consisting of one or more residential buildings; it is one type of housing tenure. Housing cooperatives are a distinctive form of home ownership that have many characteristics that differ from other residential arrangements such as single family home ownership, condominiums and renting.[ Retrieved 2 May 2015]
The corporation is membership-based, with membership granted by way of a share purchase in the cooperative. Each shareholder in the legal entity is granted the right to occupy one housing unit. A primary advantage of the housing cooperative is the pooling of the members’ resources so that their buying power is leveraged, thus lowering the cost per member in all the services and products associated with home ownership.
Another key element is that the members, through their elected representatives, screen and select who may live in the cooperative, unlike any other form of home ownership. Housing cooperatives fall into two general tenure categories: non-ownership (referred to as non-equity or continuing) and ownership (referred to as equity or strata). In non-equity cooperatives, occupancy rights are sometimes granted subject to an occupancy agreement, which is similar to a lease. In equity cooperatives, occupancy rights are sometimes granted by way of the purchase agreements and legal instruments registered on the title. The corporation's articles of incorporation and bylaws as well as occupancy agreement specifies the cooperative's rules.
The word cooperative is also used to describe a non-share capital co-op model in which fee-paying members obtain the right to occupy a bedroom and share the communal resources of a house that is owned by a cooperative organization.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Due to the significance of cooperative society, the international labour organization has to show the fact that; "in current National Development Plan, various measures are adopted to broaden the productive base of the economy as a strategy to achieving a strong and virile economy, enhance availability of improved technology and extensive services through cooperative society activities.
The above policy statement clearly shows that the status and prominence given currently achieve and enjoyed by this relatively organization in our society is agent of change in the nation economy.
This understanding is therefore, aimed at obtaining and observing the activities of cooperative society in Jeromi Ifelodun Local Government Lagos State through federal agencies to alleviate poverty, create wealth and ensure food security through cooperative society's scheme, the problem of ignorance, the formation of cooperative societies in Jeromi Ifelodun Local Government Lagos prevails hence, the need to research on".
In the light of these problems, the researcher is therefore boarded and wants to probe into the activities of housing co-operative societies to know whether they are contributing towards the economic development and growth of the country.
The researcher also intends to investigate the impact of housing co-operative societies on economic growth by identifying the above mentioned phenomenon and to know the prospect and problems encounted by housing co-operative so cities in their attempt to develop an improve the economy.
1.3 Objectives of Study
This research work has the following objectives which will be achieved by the research in accomplishing the study;
To evaluate the impact of cooperative housing and assess its significance to the economic growth of the nation. Make possible suggestion to the policy of the housing cooperative societies. To highlight the importance and the role cooperate housing has brought to the people and to the economy.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions shall guide the study;
What is the cost of accumulating a residential building here in this estate in Lagos? Comparing this residential structure and the cost with other one non-cooperative, which is preferable in cost and avoidable? What are the privileges given to you as a member and owner of a residents within the cooperative housing? What is your view to the program and the policy of the housing cooperative society of Ajeromi Ifelodun Local Government Lagos?
1.5 Research hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested in the study;
Ho:There is no relationship between housing cooperative societies to the economic growth off the nation.
Hi:There is a relationship between housing cooperative societies to the economic growth off the nation
Ho: Housing cooperative societies has made the standard of living high for the poor masse in Lagos
Hi; Housing cooperative societies have reduce the standard of living high for the poor masse in Lagos
1.6 Significance of the Study
Robust economic growth cannot be achieved without putting in place well focused programmes to reduce poverty through empowering the people by increasing their access to factors such as housing. The latent capacity of the poor entrepreneurs would be significantly enhanced through the provision of housing cooperative societies to enable them own a place of there’s.
However, the lack of required benefits from the housing cooperative societies in Lagos state has become a major concern in Nigeria. Hence, this study shall be relevant to policy makers in the areas of housing cooperative societies in Lagos. Also, this study shall enhance further research in the subject area.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The scope of the study shall cover Lagos state housing cooperative societies using Ajeromi Ifelodun Local Government Lagos. However, this research will be carried out using five cooperative housing in Ajeromi Ifelodun Local Government Lagos which had a total number of 234 respondents.
1.8 Research Methodology
The study relied on secondary data relating to the concept and implementation of Cooperative Housing in Ajeromi Ifelodun Local Government Lagos. Data was from both published and unpublished sources. Considerable materials were gotten from Internet sources. Non-statistical methods were employed in analyzing the systems. A comparative analysis was done based on some parameters including modalities for funding, peculiarities of Implementation, planning Imperatives and levels of success
Population of Study
The population of study shall comprise all the house owners in the five selected estate in Ajeromi Ifelodun Local Government Lagos. The population size is at about 234 owners.
A sample size of 200 respondents was drawn from the study population. The constitution of the sample was as follows;
The study shall adopt the stratified random sampling technique. The method entails grouping respondents into strata on the bases of common characteristics which in this case is the house owners. After the grouping, the simple random sampling technique is then applied to select the required sample size of 40 from each estate.
Data Collection Instrument
Data collection will be done through the questionnaire method. The questionnaire was structured into section A and B with close ended questions. Section A shall generate information on respondents’ bio-data while, section B, will elicits information on respondents perception of the Ajeromi Ifelodun Local Government Lagos.
The questionnaire is in a close ended format which allowed the respondents to offer their views according to the Lickert scale of responses as follows;
SA – Strongly Agreed
A - Agreed
U - Undecided
SD – Strongly Disagreed
Administration of the Instrument
To foster quick response to the questionnaire, the researcher will personally administered the questionnaires to the respondents. The effort enable the researcher to clear some of the items contain in the instrument with the respondents while, at the same time, respondent attention were drawn to some items yet to be filled.
Method of Data Analysis
All data collected shall be analysed using statistical tools such as frequency distribution table, percentages, and chi-square analysis for testing the formulated hypotheses.
X2 = ∑(O-E)2
df (degree of freedom)= N-1
X2 = Chi-square calculated value.
O = Observed frequency
E = Expected frequency which is derived by
df = Degree of freedom
N = Number of Observation
∞ = level of significant (5%)
1.9 Definition of Key Terms
Economic growth: this is an increase in the welfare of the citizens and a general growth to the development and ownership of house among the people.
Cooperative housing: is a legal entity, like a corporation, which owns real estate, consisting of one or more residential buildings; it is one type of housing tenure..
Co-operatives: As association of persons usually of limited means who have come together to achieve a common economic goal through equitable contribution.