DESIGN OF A FULL ADDER CIRCUIT
ABSTRACTTechnological advancement has cut across all aspects of human activities. However, it is on this platform that the need to minimize or check water wastage arises. Water is a free gift of nature but due to its indispensability to human existence; it should be conserved for the purpose of constant availability or sufficiency. Moreover, in order to take good care of this problem of wastage, there is a need for the construction of a water level controller this will guide against unnecessary wastage of water, for it will make a reasonable quantity of water to be used any time. In this project, the effort has been made to construct a water controller that is capable of controlling the electric water pumping motor operation in regard o switching “ON” or “OFF” at a predetermined level of water in the storage tanks or reservoirs. This project also gives the clarity of advantage of using an automatic method of controlling water level over human or manual control method.
TABLE OF CONTENT Title page iCertification iiDedication iiiAcknowledgment ivAbstract vTable of content vi CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction 11.1 Motivation 1 – 2 1.2 Layout of reports 2CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Literature review 32.1 Digital concept, logic gate symbol, and truth table 3 – 6 2.2 The complementary metal oxide silicon integrated circuits (CMOSIC) 7 1. Resistor, capacitor, and transistors 8 – 10 2. Relay 10 CHAPTER THREE 3.0 Units design calculation 113.1 The power supply unit 12 3.2 The rectifier stage 12 – 16 3.3 Power supply regulation and sensing/control unit 16 – 17 3.4 Switching circuit design calculation 17 3.5 Mode of operation 18 – 19 CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 Performance text and analysis 20 4.1 Casing and its diagram 20 – 21 4.2 Block diagram 21 CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 Conclusion and recommendation 225.1 Bill of engineering measurements and evaluation (BEME) 23 5.2 References 24 CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION
Water is one of the most important natural resources that need to be conserved, but the rate at which water is being wasted in both domestic and industrial activities is quite learning, however, in a bid to reduce this kind of wastage in some industries, the effort has been made towards the design of a “recirculation system” in which water that has been used is made to recycle and be used again for the production processes. In some homes is the make use of the overhead reservoirs, there s the need to make use of electric motors for the purpose of pumping water by the electric motor into these reservoirs stop usually depends on the capacity of the reservoirs (that is the time at which water fills the reservoirs to the brim) this, however, usually brings about “forced leakages” through the month of the overhead tanks or reservoirs and hence, the whole environment or surroundings will become flooded with waters. This is, of course, an abnormal condition. Moreover, for this reason, and others that will be mentioned later, there arises the need to develop an efficient and effective means of controlling the level at which water will be pumped in the reservoirs in house and industries in order to reduce wastage of water, loading at the environments and host of other. This a water level controller that will be a supervisory system for monitoring the level of water, which a particular reservoir can contain, needs to be designed and constructed, such that when the water reaches the level at which the probe detectors of the controller are set in the tanks, the motor automatically stopped and alarm to indicate that the volume of the water pumped is enough has to be incorporated. 1.1 MOTIVATIONOf all the existing methods of water conservation ranging from privative manual control to the use of “float” to control the pumping action of the electric motors, there has not been a completely electronic method of control. In the manual control, bring compelled to climb up to a reservoir in which water is being pumped by an electric motor, in order to determine the level of the required water and for which the motor should be stopped, be not the best way of using qualified manpower. Besides, this offers a very tedious working condition to the working personnel’s on the whole. However; an improper way of controlling the water level in the overhead tanks or reservoirs is contributing to the problem of water wastage and environmental flooding which can lead to inconvenience for the people around, damage of the property, and other valuable materials in homes and industries. Hence, the real motivation in having this supervisory unit equipment is based on its advantages of the ability to detect the presence of water at a predetermined level and then control of the pumping operation is basically completed electronic mode, the advantage which reduces the problems associated with age which reduces the problems associated with improper way of water level centered. 1.2 LAYOUT OF REPORT The report layout all the procedures involved in the project from chapter one to chapter five. ⦁ Chapter one discusses the introduction, which covers the motivation. ⦁ Chapter two deals with the literature review and the general knowledge of the entire system. ⦁ Chapter three is on the system design, calculation, and mode of operation. ⦁ Chapter four describes the construction testing and problems encountered as well as the courses of the project. ⦁ Chapter five presents the conclusion and the recommendation..