SPEED CONTROL OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR USING VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE


SPEED CONTROL OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR USING VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE

ABSTRACT:          

There are various methods for speed control of induction motors. This paper specifically describes one of the methods: speed control using variable frequency. The proposed system is a MATLAB Simulink model, which is a closed loop model designed to achieve desired speed control of a three-phase induction motor by varying its frequency. The Simulink model has four main blocks, namely the inverter, synchronous machine, proportional integral control and current hysteresis control. For accuracy of output results and simplicity, we have used dq to abc transformation block and sin function block. The inverter is comprised of six insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), which are fired by gate pulses generated by current hysteresis control block. The inverter generates variable frequency and variable voltage output, which is given to motor terminals. The project presents the working principle of variable frequency drive (VFD), its performance, and the use of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) in a three-phase inverter to control the frequency and thus the speed. The proposed method conformed to performance predictions and delivered the desired outputs.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT    ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS    iii

LIST OF FIGURES    v

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS    vi

1.    INTRODUCTION    1

2.    BACKGROUND AND BASIC UNDERSTANDING    2

3.    VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE OPERATING PRINCIPLE    8

4.    COMPONENTS OF PROJECT MODEL    12

5.    BLOCK DIAGRAM AND OUTPUT    19

6.    CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK    23

REFERENCES    24

LIST OF FIGURES

1.    Motor speed-torque chart    5

2.    Basic block diagram of VFD    10

3.    Hysteresis control block    17

4.    Simulink model of VFD    21

5.    Graph of desired speed    22

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

µA    micro-Ampere

mA    milli -Ampere

µV    micro-Volt

mV    milli-Volt

AC    Alternating Current

BJT    Bipolar Junction Transistor

CSI    Current Source Inverter

DC    Direct Current

DTC    Direct Torque Control

EMF    Electro Motive Force

HP    Horse Power

IGBT    Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

KW    Kilo Watt

KV    Kilo Volt

kHz    kilo Hertz

LCI    Load Commutated Inverter

LV    Low Voltage

MOSFET    Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

MOSIGT    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Insulated Gate Transistor

MV    Medium Voltage

MW    Mega Watt

PI    Proportional Integral

PWM    Pulse Width Modulation

SVPWM    Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation

V/Hz    Volts per Hertz

VFD    Variable Frequency Drive

VSI    Voltage Source Inverter

CHAPTER ONE:      INTRODUCTION  -        

A variable-frequency drive (VFD) is a type of adjustable speed drive used in electro- mechanical drive systems to control AC motor speed and torque by varying motor input frequency and voltage. VFDs are used in applications ranging from small appliances to the largest of mine mill drives and compressors. Over the last four decades, power electronics technology has reduced VFD cost and size and improved performance through advances in semiconductor switching devices, drive topologies, simulation, and control techniques, and control hardware and software. VFDs are available in several different low and medium

voltage AC-AC and DC-AC topologies. Variable speed drives are used for two main reasons: to improve the efficiency of motor-driven equipment by matching speed with the changing load requirements and to allow accurate and continuous process control over a wide range of speeds. This project specifically puts emphasis on one of the various methods of speed control of induction motor that is by changing frequency. The simulation of this VFD consists of four main units namely inverter, induction motor, PI (Proportional Integral) controller and hysteresis controller. In this project model, pulse width modulation technique is used to generate variable frequency.

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SPEED CONTROL OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR USING VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE



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