ATTITUDE OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


ATTITUDE OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS   

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the attitude of parents and teachers towards the teaching of sex education in secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis. The independent variables were gender, age place of residence, education status, family type and religion. 

Two hundred respondents (eighty responded among the parents in their places of work while one hundred and twenty respondents among the teachers in the various schools respectively) were randomly selected through  attitude of parents and teachers toward sex education questionnaire (APTTSEQ). Data collected were analysed using frequency count, percentage and t-test.

The research works revealed that students have high knowledge of sex education. On the comparison, there were no significant differences in the attitudes of teachers and parents toward the teaching of sex education on the basis of sex, age group, education status, family type and religion. However significant difference observed on the basis of location. 

It was recommended that emphasis should be placed on creating awareness on sex education stemming the flood of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS. This requires joint effort of parents, teachers, curriculum planners and even government. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS     PAGE

TITLE PAGE i

CERTIFICATION ii

DEDICATION iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv

ABSTRACT vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS vi

LIST OF TABLES ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 

Background to the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 5

Purpose of the Study 8

Research Questions 9

Research Hypotheses 10

Significance of the Study 11

Delimitation of the Study 13

Definition of Terms (Operational Definition) 14

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 

Consequence of Sexual Activities among Adolescents 17

History of Sex Education 32

Concept and Attitude of Sex Education 35

Attitude towards Sex Education 39

Attitude of Parents towards Sex Education 39

Attitude of Teachers towards Sex Education 42

Need for Sex Education 44

Appraisal of the Reviewed Literature 52

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD 

Research Design 54

Population 55

Sample and Sampling Technique 55

Research Instrument 57

Validity of the Instrument 58

Reliability of the Instrument 58

Administration of the Instrument 59

Method of Data Analysis 60

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Presentation of Results 61

Hypotheses Testing 65

Discussion of the Findings 70

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

   RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary 73

Conclusion 75

Implications of the Study 77

Recommendations 78

Limitations to the Study 80

Suggestion for Further Studies 80

REFERENCES 81

APPENDIX 84

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Distribution of Respondents on the Basis of 

Gender 62

Table 2: Distribution of Respondents on the Basis 

of Age 62

Table 3: Distribution of Respondents on the Basis of 

Residence 63

Table 4: Distribution of Respondents on the basis 

of Educational Status 63

Table 5: Distribution of Respondents on the basis 

of Family Type 64

Table 6: Distribution of Respondents on the Basis 

of Religion 65

Table 7: means, standard deviation and t-test value 

of teachers attitude towards the teaching 

of sex education on the basis of gender 68

Table 8: Analysis of variance on the attitude of 

teachers towards sex education on the 

basis of age 66

Table 9: Means, standard deviation and the t-test 

value of the parents towards teaching 

of sex education on the basis of place of 

residence 67

Table 10: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of teachers’ 

attitude towards the teaching of sex 

education on the basis of educational 

status 68

Table 11: Mean, standard deviation, calculated 

t-value on the attitude of parents towards 

sex education on the basis of family type 69

Table 12: Mean, standard deviation and t-value on 

attitude of parent towards sex education 

on the basis of Religion 69

CHAPTER ONE 

INTRODUCTION 

Background to the Study 

Sex Education is a broad term used to describe education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse reproductive heat, emotional relationship and so on. Sex Education may also be described as “sexuality education referring to all aspects of sexuality, including information about family planning reproduction (fertilization conception and development of embryo and fetus through child birth). 

Sex education, which is sometimes called sexuality education, is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex. Sex education is about developing young people’s skills so that they make informed choices about their behaviour, feel confidents and competent about acting on informed choices. 

However, it is widely accepted that young people have a right to sex education. This is because it is a means by which they help to protect themselves against abuse, exploitation unintended pregnancies, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD and HIV). It also argued that providing sex education helps to meet young peoples right to information about matter that affect them. 

With regards to the attitude of parents towards teaching of sex education to their adolescent girls, the issue still remains one that is approached as sacred sex is probably one area  of our lives about which we know so little and whatever little we happen to know are in bits and pieces through sources like friends, acquaintance etc.  As important as sex is in our life’s, parents, elders and teachers in Kwara State and especially in Ilorin Metropolis hardly play any significant role in providing vital knowledge.

Since talking about sex is more or less a taboo in the Ilorin society the adolescents cannot freely approach his/her parents for guidance. Also, those who seek guidance from parents are not satisfied because they later try to evade discussion or are not able to give satisfactory answers. A few of them try to gather information through books, films not have access to such information. Many times, the ado1lescent receives wrong information and these myths and misconceptions are carried through out their life time. 

Similarly, the rural mothers and the urban mothers feel hesitant towards providing sex knowledge to their children. According to them, the girls can get information through their friends and elder sister. To them sex education should be imparted to girls only on the verge of getting married. The attitude of teachers towards sex education in Ilorin Metropolis can still be described Luke warm goal of sexuality education is the promotion of sexual health by providing learners with opportunities to develop a positive and factual view of sexuality and indeed sexual health. This on the long run contributes in the prevention of HIV/AIDS. 

However, adolescence is a period when young people experience changes in their bodies among which is the development of new sexual feeling, which they may not understand. This is also the period when most of them are in secondary schools or higher institutions they therefore need information about assurance about what is happening to them. Children and teenagers are exposed to a barrage of information related to sexuality which will require guidance from families and schools for health, sexual development and responsible behaviours. 

Besides due to impact of western civilization, there is need to supplement the training of people in the art of family life by their parents and family members with a school based sexuality education programme. This prompted the Federal Government of Nigeria in 1999 through the National Council on Education to Incorporate Sexuality Education into the National School Curriculum. This has generated heated debates especially among parents. There is also the likelihood that even teachers might not perceive sexuality, education in the light of reducing sexual promiscuity and it attendant complication like sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS. 

Despite the perceived benefits, the feared risk of exposure to early sex ranked high among the teachers with the attendant sexual promiscuity as the risk of teaching sexuality education in secondary schools. (Comprehensive Sexuality Education. Trainers Resource Manual Action Health Incorporated 2003: 4- 5), Teachers Attitude to Sexuality Education is varied and was found to be related to some variables such as age and level of education. According to Gordon Dickman (1977), sex education role. New York, public affairs committee stated that age affected the willingness of the teachers to teach sexuality education though not significantly. 

The older teachers may have adolescent children and may be willing to train and impact sexuality knowledge to students as this will help them in teaching their children at home. However, exposure to higher levels of education especially University Education, improves teachers knowledge and attitude towards sexuality education. This was brought to the fore in this study as there was significant relationship obtaining higher professional qualifications and willingness to teach sexuality education.

Statement of the Problem 

In Nigeria, a number of studies have shown that sexual activity among youth is not only high but rising. (Oladipo 1983), the researcher therefore acknowledges the need for the teaching of sex education in secondary school curriculum because it will help the adolescents to understand many of the problems associated with sexual relationship. Such education programmes will reduce the rate of unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases abortion and some other sex related offences. 

There appears to be a consensus among Nigerian researchers and observers that many traditional values are changing rapidly and for the worse (Naswen, 2001; Ezeh, 2001; Armala, 2005 and Eruesegbefe, 2005), one area of life in which the decline of traditional values is obvious in the area of sexuality. One major change has been the acceptance of pre-marital sex in a loving relationship. Osisioma (1998), lamented that in Nigeria, culture no longer has a grip on the youth as our society seems to be plagued with decayed moral codes and values and so the sense of right and wrong is eroded. This seems to affect the youth, adolescents inclusive more than any other group as this is manifested in the acceptance of sex before marriage, homosexual, lesbianism, abortion, drug addiction and indecent dressing. 

Denga (1983), pointed out that sexuality explicit movies expose young people to adult issue at an “Impressionable age”. Other opine that the well use of pornographic materials as well as knowledge and use of contraceptives, especially the condom that has been excessively advertised, has contributed immensely to the involvement of adolescents in sexual practices (Onuzulike, 2002). 

Since both homes and the school have complementary roles in imparting appropriate sex education to students there is need to study the attitude of parents and teachers towards the teaching of  sex education  to students there is need to study the attitude of parents and teachers towards the teaching of sex education in secondary schools. The occurrences of pregnancies in the 12 – 19 years age group place this population at the risk with regards to the medical complication, probability of education completion. Financial disadvantages resulting from limited employment opportunities and social isolation of child by the parents that might eventually manifest as child abuse. The high rate of divorce un-happy, sexual, maladjustment, sexually transmitted diseases, prostitution and crimes such as rape in our society etc. testify to the need to have sex education in Nigeria secondary schools. Lack of sex education leads to failure in some instances, it may eventually leads to suicide attempts, death of some youth (Corey/Mccarest, 1981), there is need for increased education of adolescents, regarding the development of successful intervention strategies for coping with issues of pregnancy during the adolescent years. 

Purpose of the Study 

The man purpose of the study is to find out the attitude of parents and teachers towards the teaching of sex education in secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis. The study also aims at finding out whether variables of gender age, place of residence, educational status, family types and religion have significant influences on parents and teachers, attitudes towards the teaching of sex education in secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis. 

Research Questions

Evolving from the problem of study, the researcher attempt to find answer to the following questions:

1. Is there any significant difference in the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of gender?

2. Is there any significant difference in the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of age group?

3. Is there any significant difference in the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of residence?

4. Is there any significant difference in the attitude of teachers towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of educational status?

5. Is there any significant difference in the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of gender?

6. Is there any significant difference in the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of religion?

Research Hypothesis

1. There is no significant difference in the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of age.

2. There is no significant difference in the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of family type.

3. There is no significant difference in the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of residence.

4. There is no significant difference in the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of educational status.

5. There is no significant difference in the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of gender.

6. There is no significant difference in the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of religion.

Significance of the Study 

Many situations that create behaviour problems in adolescent such as juvenile delinquency, sexual misbehaviour, rape lesbianism, violence etc. are intimately or distantly related to the psychological and physiological changes that occur at puberty (Akinboye, 1984). In culture, adults feel that it is unethical to discuss sex matters with the adolescents, thereby leaving them to seek information on their own. This study wants to investigate the attitude of parents and teachers in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis. 

The result of this study will be of great benefit to parents as well as teachers, in helping to promote positive attitude towards the teaching of sex There is no significant difference in the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of in secondary school is positive. They will have a better understanding of their adolescents and be able to give them the basic knowledge they need to know about human sexuality. There by reducing the rate of unwanted pregnancies and premature death among the adolescents. Also adolescents themselves will benefit greatly in that, if parents and teacher attitude is positive they will gain freedom in discussing any sex related issues with them and thereby get answers to numerous questions that may be bothering them about human sexualities, thereby preventing them from getting wrong information/counsellor from their inexperienced peer groups. 

On the other hand teachers, school authorities curriculum planners, government and non-Government Organizations (N.G.O) health professionals and the society at large will benefit. The basic sex education that the adolescent had received from home, schools and the understanding of their parents and teachers will compliment their efforts. Adolescent and others therefore need to learn to appreciate what these changes are, and to develop means of handling them. The knowledge of sex education in our secondary school cannot be over emphasized because the knowledge of sex education makes the adolescents become aware of the developmental changes. 

Delimitation of the Study 

The sample of the study will be restricted to parents and teachers (both makes and females) of secondary school students in Ilorin Metropolis. This study focuses on the attitude of parents and teachers towards the teaching of sex education in secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis. Similarly, the study is interested in the variable of gender, age, place of residence, educational status, family type and religion as they influence parents and teachers attitude towards the teaching of sex education in secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis were considered. 

Definition of Term (Operational Definition)

For the purpose of this study, the following terms would be operationally defined as used in this study. 

Abortion: Abortion refers to termination of pregnancy before the foetus is viable.

Adolescent: This refers to young person between age of 14 to 19 years the term will be inter changeably used with “youth” in this study. 

Contraception: This is the use of devices or drugs to pervert conception in sexual intercourse. 

Education: A systematic instruction that will bring about changes in the life of an individual, a gradual process of impacting knowledge. 

Gender: This is refers to being male or female. 

Masturbation: The sexual self stimulation (usually to organs) manually or other stimulation of the genital organs. Menarche; the first menstruation circle of a girl. 

Puberty: The stage in life when a person reaches sex maturity and becomes capable of reproduction. 

Sex: Is probably one area of our life about which we know so little sex inhibits and pieces through sources like friends acquaintance on cheap sex books. 

Sex Education: That aspect of education that makes the adolescents become knowledgeable about sex and sexually behaviour and helps to develop wholesome attitude towards those behaviours. 

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ATTITUDE OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS



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