EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENTAL MATERIALS ON STUDENT'S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ON SOCIAL STUDIES IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA


EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENTAL MATERIALS ON STUDENT'S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ON SOCIAL STUDIES IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0 INTRODUCTION

2.1 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AUDITORY AND VISUAL SENSES.

2.2 NEED FOR THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

2.3 TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

2.4 THE INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES

2.5 SUMMARY OF THE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

3.2 AREA OF THE STUDY

3.3 POPULATIONS

3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

3.6 VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT

3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS

4.1 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

4.2 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

4.3 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

5.1 SUMMARY OF RESULTS

5.2 GENERAL CONCLUSION

5.3 IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY

5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS

5.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

5.6 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY

REFERENCES

STUDENTS QUESTIONNAIRE

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to find out the effect of instructional materials on students’ academic performance in social studies in Etung Local Government Area of Cross River State. The researcher formulated three research questions to direct the study after a review of relevant and related literature in chapter two. The investigator, in his design, adopted the descriptive survey design which studied samples of both large and small populations to discover the relative incidence. The population of study was JSS two students of 2013/2014 session who were used for the random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a fifteen-item questionnaire and information coded therein was analyzed using the simple percentage. From the analysis some results were arrived at and based on the results and findings, recommendations were made:

1. The public should be aware of the uses of instructional materials which will aid in the understanding of social studies;

2. Emphasis must be placed on instructional materials inorder to inculcate the spirit of learning social studies; and finally, government and non-governmental agencies should assist in the provision of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools today is not absolutely new. What is new is the technological equipment that have been introduced recently into the teaching and learning process. With the evolving technology and the new communication media, efforts are on the increase in the application of instructional aids to learning; a development that has proven to be beneficial to learners.

Many teachers are not knowledgeable or find it difficult to use instructional materials when teaching because of lack of training on it’s application for effective use and dissemination of knowledge. Some teachers do not see the instructional materials for use. Hence, teachers are faced with the problem of talking about instructional materials without making bold attempts.

It is virtually important that teachers keep in mind the purpose for which instructional materials are used. The characteristics and special need for pupils to be taught by them and the bases for selecting the materials most likely use to help learners achieve the objective of their study. For example, teachers must know when to use a film to clarify important concepts rather than explaining it in a text book. When to use discussion alone, when to embark on a field trip with the showing and discussion of a related film strip, when to assign outside viewing of television programme of self-study of a programmed filmstrip or when to have the class produce diagrams or flannel boards illustrations as part of summarizing oral report on one aspect of class work.

The modern method of teaching is known as formal process. Therefore whether in a formal or informal situation, knowledge are easily assimilated.

This study attempts to find out how well equipped the teacher are to impact knowledge to their students, taking cognizance of information made available from both the electronic and print media.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The deteriorating state of our educational system is quite worrisome. The problem teachers and students encounter in our educational system include inadequate teaching and learning materials.

Instructional materials are bought into play along the line to enhance educational achievement whenever they are properly used. Nevertheless, it has been realized that there is a need for a coordinated source of information for pre-service teachers on the preparation and utilization of instructional materials. This will help to reduce most of the problems in the teaching and learning process. Inspite of this, the problem associated with this instructional materials is the procurement of the instructional materials. Other problems that hinder the effective use of instructional materials in schools include lack of electricity supply to operate some visual aids, lack of qualified educational technologists to operate them. However, curriculum planners should emphasize the use of instructional materials by teachers for a break-through in educational attainments. What ponders the mind of researchers and most educationalists is whether introduction of teaching aids during a lesson can achieve results no matter the level of qualification and experience of the teacher.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to :-

- Determine the effect of the instructional materials on the performance of social studies students in secondary schools in Etung Local Government Area.

- Determine whether the use of instructional materials has any influence in the teaching of social studies in secondary schools in Etung Local Government Area.

- Determine whether models and specimens are more effective in the teaching of social studies in secondary school in Etung Local Government Area than pictures and charts.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is therefore the researcher’s expectation that upon completion of this study, the findings of the study will be beneficial to teachers,students, government and the general public in more ways than one.

First, this study will assist the teachers in secondary school in Etung Local Government to adopt the consistent use of instructional materials in the classrooms to make learning interesting and enhance better understanding by the students.

Since the use of instructional materials in teaching in a formal or informal situation has positive results in the sense that it enhance effective understanding in the learners, it will therefore enable government to produce more instructional materials to all the schools, to enhance productivity in education.

Moreso, it is seen and believed that the use of instructional materials will immensely help in creating picture interaction in the mind of those that are slow to learn in the school learners.

For proper discussion and understanding of abstract concepts and themes, materials must be used to drive home the learning, and in concrete terms.

This research will also serve as a point of inquiry and reference for both students and members of the public who want to know or carryout related study on this area.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to guide this study:-

1. What effect does instructional materials exert on student academic performance in social studies in secondary schools ?.

2. To what extend does the use of instructional materials facilitate and enhance effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools. ?

3. Does the use of models and specimens increase knowledge and appreciation of the subject content ?.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study on the effect of instructional materials on students performance in social studies in Etung Local Government Area is due to constraints such as inadequate finance and settlement. The researcher therefore limited her investigation to five secondary schools in the study area in Etung Local Government Area.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Instructional Aids:- This can be used interchangeably as instructional materials. They are aids used by the teacher in classroom to supplement the transmission of knowledge with a view to emphasizing clarification of instructions.

Audio-Aids: This are instructional materials that apply only to the sense of hearing e.g radio, cassette recorder.

Visual Aids:- This are instructional materials that apply only to the sense of sight e.g film, chart.

Audio-Visual Aids:- This is a term derived out of audio and visual, to indicate a variety of communication materials used to send out message, ideas and experiences through the active participation of sense organs of both sight and hearing e.g television, video tapes.

Secondary Schools:- This refers to the formal academic programmes meant for children who have completed their primary school course and are between the age of eleven to seventeen years and above.

Academic Performance:- This refers to the level of grade or scores that a student obtains in class test or internal and external examination after due process of evaluation.

CHAPTER TWO:  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0 INTRODUCTION

It is the intention of the researcher in this chapter, to review the works of scholars and researchers, which are related to this topic. This will be done under the following topics.

1. The effectiveness of auditory and visual senses.

2. Need for the use of audio visual materials

3. Types of audio visual materials

4. The influence of audio visual materials in the teaching of social studies.

5. Summary of review

2.1 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AUDITORY AND VISUAL SENSES.

Bello opined that more is retained when students use both their auditory and visual sense organs simultaneously. In the teaching of social studies, just like in other areas of instructions, instructional materials are indispensable, as seeing, is said to control a greater part of all sensory information. to buttress the usefulness of instructional materials in creating social awareness when used in teaching social studies in secondary schools.

Bonska, explained that “one remembers only 10% of what is heard and 90% of what is heard, seen, and done. Accordingly, Berry and Buktenica explained that instructional materials are very important in education. This was equally due to the realization of the immense influence which audio visual materials creates on a recipient. Also Bouska in realization of the significant role of instructional materials onlearning advised that since resourcefulness is a basic quality for a successful life, classroom teaching activity should involve more problems that are resourcefulness oriented. Thus, the influence of audio visual materials in creating social awareness is more effective than words alone if they are related to the learning process.

This is so because it is believed that some learn better when they hear and see, while others, the sense of hearing, touch, smell, dominate them in acquiring knowledge. This may also confirm the saying that “what we hear we forget, what we see we tend to remember, and what we see and hear we remember more”.

Therefore for proper discussion and understanding of social concepts, instructional materials are more often used to drive home the message especially with a non-literate audience. Hence, the use of instructional materials play an important role because they work more effectively and used to supplement the text books.

It is widely said and believed that, the best way of helping learners is to bring them face to face with instructional materials.

According to Akkinson, the result of the use of resources is more effective than words or verbalization. This can only be done through the influence of instructional materials which represent real life situations. This is because they are capable of conveying the intended message to the recipient as they received it, understand and apply the experience gained to real life situations.

Beside, considering the high level of literacy, poverty, traditional beliefs, ignorance e.t.c. of the rural people, the use of instructional materials can help arouse their interest, provide a clear mental picture, speed understanding, help memory retention and provide a shared experience which in the end creates historical awareness.

Brown wrote that “Looking at something with the person with whom you are trying to communicate there is something in common, and that is the thing both of you see” as this is shared, the words used are better understood because both the speaker and the listener relate them to a common instructional materials. For effective use of instructional materials, care must be taken of what is taught and advised if we are not to waste time rather than aid the teaching finally, the use of instructional materials compels attention through their combined influence of movement, sound and a great range of instructional materials.

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EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENTAL MATERIALS ON STUDENT'S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ON SOCIAL STUDIES IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA



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