DETERMINANTS OF DRUG USAGE AMONG FEMALES AS PERCEIVED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA).


DETERMINANTS OF DRUG USAGE AMONG FEMALES AS PERCEIVED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA).  

ABSTRACT 

The study examined the determinants of drug usage among females as perceived by secondary school teachers in Ilorin South Local Government Area of Kwara State. 

Data were collected from 200 randomly selected teachers through drug usage among females as perceived by secondary school teacher questionnaire. The questionnaire was analysed using simple frequency counts and percentages. The study showed that the use of drug like India herm, cocaine, amphelamines, marijuana and cannabis heroin if fairly common among secondary school teachers. 

The study also showed that drug usages are not only common among adults but also abused by students in secondary schools. It was found in the study that students got to know about drug use, abuse and even smoking via their friends. 

Based on the finding it was recommended that counselling services should be provided in all schools, both primary school, secondary and higher institution so to be curb drug usage early.   

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i

Approval Page ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract vi

Table of Contents vii

List of Tablesx

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 

Background to the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 9

Research Questions 11

Research Hypotheses 12

Purpose of the Study 13

Significance of the Study 13

Operational Definition of Terms 14

Scope of the Study 17

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 

Introduction 18

Meaning, Nature and Concept of Drug Abuse 20

Causes of Use of Drugs among Youth with particular

reference to the female 32 

Consequences of use of drugs among youth with 

particular references to the females45

Problems associated with use of drugs among youth 48 

Roles of Nigeria Government in curbing use of drugs 55

Summary of the Review of Related Literature 59

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 

Introduction 61

Research Design 61

Sample and Sampling Procedure 62

Instrumentation 62

Psychometric Properties of the Instrument 63

Validity 63

Reliability 64

Procedure for Data Collection and Administration    65        

Scoring Procedure 66

Method of Data Analysis 66

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

Introduction 68

Descriptive Data 68

Demographic Data of the Sample 68

Hypotheses Testing 76

Summary of Findings 81

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, AND 

  RECOMMENDATIONS 

Introduction 83

Discussion 83

Conclusion 90

Implication for Counselling 91

Recommendations 94

Suggestions for Further Studies 96

References 99

Appendix 102

LIST OF TABLES 

Table 1: Distribution of Respondents by Gender 69

Table 2: Distribution of Respondent by Age 69

Table 3: Distribution of Respondents by Marital 

Status 70

Table 4: Distribution of the respondents by Religion 71

Table 5: Ranking order Item by item Analysis of 

Responses 72

Table 6: Summary Table for the Determinants of 

Drug Use among Females 75

Table 7: Means Standard Deviations and t-values 

of Respondents’ Perception of the 

determinants of Drug Use among Females 77

Table 8: Means Standard Deviations and t-values 

of Respondents Perception of the 

Determinants of Drug Use among Females 

on the basis of Age 78

Table 9: Mean, Standard Deviations and t-values 

of Respondents on the basis of Marital 

Status 79

Table 10: Mean, Standard Deviations and t-values 

of Respondents on the basis of 

respondents religion  80

CHAPTER ONE 

INTRODUCTION 

Background to the Study 

Drug is any substance used as medicine or in making medicine for internal and external use. Any substance or mixture of substance intended to be used for cure, mitigation prevention of diseases of either man or animals. Drugs could be extended from plants, animals, vitamins, inorganic and synthetic. 

Many parts of plants can be used as drugs chemical substance, which can serve as drug, can be isolated from stem, wood, bark, roots and fruits of plant e.t.c. drug from animal source are usually derived from the animals are also good source of drugs. Drug from inorganic sources may come from metals acids, alkaline and salt. 

According to National Teachers Institute (1990), drug could serve many functions as outlined below: 

a. Drugs are used to prevent the occurrence of a diseases or to lessen its severely if it does occur, 

b. Drugs used to aid the physician in diagnosing what is causing certain symptoms; 

c. Drugs remises the symptoms of the disease and may destroy the causative agent. 

d. It sustains the patient until other measures can be taken or unit the body is able to or not able to remover from disease or ailment.   

e. Drug is used to replace substance normally found in the body. 

All drugs have multiple effects and these very from dose level to dose level, from person to person and are greatly influenced by time and setting. Drug effects are a function of the interaction between the drug the individuals psychological and social milieu. Some drugs are dangerous for some individuals at some dosage level under some circumstances. Some drugs are more dangerous than others, some individuals are more susceptible to drugs than others. 

Drugs abuse, which originally concerned as the problem of few elites have extended to a sizeable proportion of youths in the country. Drug abuse constitutes a major threat to the existence and function of a million of people around the world, Widom (2000). 

According to Akintade (2005), drug abuse is the use of a drug that is not in accordance with the recommended medical use of drug. Drugs are especially those that affect the brain and mind by depressing, stimulating or disorganizing it such drugs are usually referred to as “Hard Drugs” examples as cocaine alcohol, marijuana, heroin, contraceptives pills and capsules. 

The tangible cost to Australian society of drug and alcohol related crime have been estimated at over $4 billion (Collins & Inpsley, 2002). In a recent report Mayhew (2003), the cost of crime in Australia was estimated to be at least $32 billion and drug offences to be at least $1.96 billion, bill could possibly be higher because drugs are implicated in many other crime. 

According to Australian National Drug Strategy (2003), the Australian Government has responded to drug abuse through the Australian National Drug Strategy, a partnership of federal, state and territory governments and the non-government sector. The National Drug Strategy aims to improve health, social and economic outcomes for Australians by preventing the up take of harmful drug use and reducing the harmful effects of licit drugs in society. Eight priorities are identified as areas for future action within the 2004 – 2009 Nation Drug Strategy: - 

1. Prevent the onset of drug use

2. Reduce the supply of drugs

3. Reduce drug use and related harms

4. Improved access to treatment 

5. Develop the workforce and organization to respond effectively. 

6. Strengthen partnerships among governments, communities, organization, business medical professions and research institution. 

7. Implement the National Drug Strategy Aboriginal and Torres Strait is launder peoples complementary Action Plan 2002 – 2003. 

8. Identify and respond to emerging trends through research environment scanning and evaluation. 

Source: http://wwwnationaldrugstrategygov.au-papframework0409. 

In Nigerian, both the Ministry of Health and National Drug law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) are working toward reducing to the barest minimum habit of use of hard drugs. The Nation has empowered the NDLEA to use both persuasive (counselling) and force caressing and jailing approached to contain use and abuse, National Teachers Institute (1990). 

According to Odejide (1985), a drug can be abuse when

⦁ It is medically unnecessary 

⦁ It is used against local and international prohibition 

⦁ And when it has been used excessively. 

The misuse of drugs by teenagers, young men and women is the greatest single evil in the country today. The danger pose by Nigeria and indeed the world over as leaders hopes and mothers of futures generation is so great that no reasonable government, community, family or individual can afford to over look. 

Despite the fact that data are scantly on reported cases, death rate from drug abuse and hospital admissions of drug users, the available report from psychiatric, general and private hospital indicate an increase in the number of drug misuses seeking for medical treatment regrettable these drugs misuses are mainly youths. Tiamiyu (1993). 

Economic of the added new dimension to youths taking drugs is the fact that drugs trafficking have become a very increative trade. So lucrative that even the stiff penalties imposed by the Federal Government have particularly failed to stem the tide or reduce the rate of abuse among youths. Some drug dealers, including women, even go to the extent of putting the stuff in their stomach or private part in an attempt to deceive vigilant security and custom officials. Instead of these women contributing to the progress and development of our country, they have become a liability to: 

i. Themselves

ii. Their family 

iii. Their country at large. 

Todays mass media such as he newspaper, magazines, the radio and the television are used for various purpose. Many types of drugs are advertised. Television programmes are used to promote and advocate the use of certain drugs. You must have some across may such advertising programmes like “Guinness is good for you”, “you’re by far brighter on a star” “golden Guinea pills new life in you”, and so many others. When youth come across such programmes, they are encouraged to believe that they are socially acceptable.

A growing body of research has examined female offenders and female drug users separately, in comparison to male and in relation to their gendered social roles. A number of gender differences have been found that highlight the importance of examining women’s drug use separately from men’s. For example, addicted women are more likely to suffer from depression and low self esteem, more likely to combine drugs and alcohol and to being and sustain an addiction through association with an addicted male associate (Pohl and Boyd, 1992 an Donalh, 2004). 

Women also face distinct issued related to their social roles as women mothers and careers the effect their drug abuse, offending and treatment option of. These includes: - 

⦁ Early experiences of sexual and physical abuse. 

⦁ Mental health issues

⦁ Social stigma related to drug abuse and offending

⦁ Caring for children and other relatives

⦁ Poverty associated with being sing parents and 

⦁ Disease and abuse associated with sex work. 

Statement of the Problem    

 Several effort and strategies have been employed to slump out the menace of drug use among the youths. Conferences, Seminars, workshops, research studies and public enlightenment campaign have been held in this regard. When all these seem not to be working, other measures like imprisonment, using law enforcement agents and sentencing offenders were employed to check the problem, unfortunately, all these have proved abortive. The problem of drug abuse has continue to eat deeper and deeper in our society and educational setting at secondary and tertiary level. Teachers, parents and administration views have been sought on the causes and way to check the problem. None of their suggested solution has checked this problem. Several other empirical research conducted on the uses of psychological strategies like moral counselling, group counselling and so on have not really brought the needed attitude change. Hence, the current study tried to investigate the nature and factors responsible or problem associate from students’ perspective. This is a deviation from some precious studies. The objectives of this study are to: 

1. Find out the unlimited restructure meaning and nature of drugs abuse. 

2. Find out the factors responsible for females involvement in drug use as perceived by secondary school teachers of Ilorin South Local Government Area. 

3. To find out the consequences and roles of government in curbing use of drugs. 

Research Questions

1. What are the determinants of females’ involvement in drug as perceived by secondary school teachers of Ilorin South Local Government Area? 

2. Is there any difference in the determinants of drug use among females as perceived by male and female respondents? 

3. Is there any difference in the determinants of drug use among females as perceived by respondents on the basis of age? 

4. Is there any difference in the determinant of drug use among females as perceived by respondents on the basis of religion? 

5. Is there any difference in the determinants of men in drug use among females as perceived on basis of respondents’ martial status? 

Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are generated to be tested in this study. 

1. There is no significant difference in the determinants of usage among female involvement in drugs use as perceived by male and female respondents. 

2. There is no significant difference in the determinants of usage among female as perceived by respondent on the basis of age. 

3. There is no significant difference in the determinants of usage among female as perceived by respondents on the basis of religion. 

4. There is no significant difference in the determinants of usage among female as perceived by respondents on the basis of respondents, marital status. 

Purpose of the Study 

According to Ogboide (1985) made a call on the Nigeria government to embark on a vigorous campaign to enlighten the youths and general public on the dangers of drug abuse. One way to effectively in map out strategies in campaign against drug abuse is first of all know the determinant of drug usage among female use as perceived by secondary school teachers of Ilorin South Local Government Area.

Significant of the Study  

This study investigated the determinant of drugs usage among female involvement in drug use, the findings of this study would be of benefit to the society at large. 

This study is very important in that, it would enable the female students to understand and acquire more information about drug use or abuse and they will be aware of the consequences or effect of drug use or abuse, another group of beneficiaries would be parents because every child place high virtue on the training receive from either right or wrong. 

In view of this the result of this study will enable the parents, counsellors, socially and government to understand the determinant of drug usage among female involvement in drug use. It is expected that when the factors are known, the right preventive measures or solution should be adequately provided. 

Operational Definition of Terms

Addiction: is a condition in which the addict was committed to a drug physically and mentally, had progressed steadily alone the tolerance ladder and was a societal problem. 

Alcohol: It is a colorless, intoxicating and inflammable chemical compound which when absorbed consciously or unconsciously has an effect on human health and causes change in behaviour. 

Drug: Drug is any chemical substance, other than food, which taken into the body system of a living organism may alter or modify one or more of its functions. 

Drug Abuse or Misuses: This is a repeated misuse of drugs or chronic desire for the effects of a particular drug created in an individual. Chronic abuse of drugs can lead to socially deviant behaviour, psychological dependence.     

Drug Addiction: Is a state of chronic intoxication produced by the repeated consumption of a drug characterized by an over powering desire to continue taking the drug and to obtain supplies regardless of the cost females. 

Youth: Young women who have reached the stage of puberty between the age of fifteen to thirty years. 

Hallucinogenic Drug: These encompass a wide variety of drugs that produced marked aberrations of behavour. They produce a condition of great heightened sensory perception.  

Marijuana: Is a mind drug that produces fantasies. It is know by several common names such as joint, leaves, flowers and the fruiting tips are usually dried and mixed with tobacco and rolled into a cigarette for smoking. 

Narcotics: Are drugs which dull sensibility, relieve pain and induce sleepiness. It is a term applied to a drug which in most people under circumstances and appropriate close change mood. 

Pill and Capsules: Tablet or tiny container of medicine for swallowing, often soluble or a small piece of medicinal substance for swallowing whole (a contraceptive pill). 

Tobacco: As used here refers to decided or cured leaves got from plant (Nicolianata bacum) which contains chemicals believed to have medicinal properties. Tobacco is the manufactured or synthesized product of Nicaliano tobacum leaves. 

Scope of the Study 

The scope of the study is to investigate the determinant of drug usage among female as perceived by secondary school teachers of Ilorin South Local Government Area. The study aims at finding out the influence of variables Age, Gender, Religion and martial Status on the perception of respondents.   

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DETERMINANTS OF DRUG USAGE AMONG FEMALES AS PERCEIVED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA).



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