AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF COMPUTERS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KAJOLA LOCAL GOVERNMENT, OYO STATE
The use of computers world over has changed the way we do many things. The integration of computer in teaching and learning has proved to be a worthwhile experiences. This study sought to establish the availability and utilization of computers for teaching and learning Business Studies in public secondary school in Kajola Local Government, Oyo State. The objectives of this research were: (1) To investigate the availability and accessibility of general purpose of computer to teachers and learners of Business Studies in Public Secondary Schools in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State. (ii) To Ascertain the ways in which teachers and learner use computer for teaching and learning purpose in Business Studies (iii) To explore the main benefit of using computers in teaching and learning of business studies in Kajola Local Government Secondary School. (iv) To investigate the challenges that the teachers and students of business studies experience in relation to the use of computers for teaching and learning respectively. The study was significant because its findings can be used to help teachers, students and teacher training institution to improve the availability, accessibility and use of computers in education and eventually help in achieving Nigerian’s economic blue print vision 2030. This study was carried out with independent variable of teachers and learners characteristics, computer as a teaching/learning resource and teaching strategy. The dependent variable were: imported teaching environment, class participation and imported performance in exams. This research. Was a descriptive study. The target population was made up of Ten (10) Business Studies teacher in Ten Public Secondary Schools and 90 Business Studies learners respectively. The researcher used descriptive sampling in order to ensure all kinds of school were represented. Data was collected using questionnaire and observation then analyzed using percentages. The study found that both teacher and learners have a positive attitude towards the use of computers in the teaching and learning of business studies. The most pressing challenges were: Low literacy levels, lack of time within teaching time and a fact that teacher were not taught how to use the computer as a teaching resources.
The study concludes that there is willingness to use computer to teach but patience is required as the positive precedes the implementation of teaching resources such as the computers. One of the recommendation of this study is that the Government at all levels and the parent Teacher Association (PTA) should stand up to help the school by providing computers and other necessary facilities for the use of the schools.
Background to the Study
The role played with the use of computer in teaching learning processes cannot be over emphasized due to its effectiveness in teaching context, in which business studies as a subject in schools also enjoyed. Twoli, Maundu, Muindi, Kuo and Kithinji (2007) lamented that, computer is useful as teaching resources but cannot replace the teacher. Today, computer is seen as one of such resource. However, a lot depends on the availability and utilization of computers in the classroom.
Shue (2009) in Kiane (2014) said that computers were introduced in American schools in 1965 and were mostly used for administrative purpose. Molnar (1997) described that computers were not widely accepted in American schools during the 1950s and 1960s because it was difficult and expensive to house the huge machines that they were during that period of time. However, Apple II computes found wide spread acceptance in education around the year 1983 and that no modern public or private schools could exist in the United States of America without a computer instructions in the 90s (Murdock & Desburg, 2004).
The assumption that computer technology has become an essential part of the basic school curriculum was summed up in the report of the United States. Department of Education (2006) which referred to computers in the classroom as “the new basic of American education”, and to the internet as “the blackboard of the future”. Preparing young people for the future goes beyond the issue of getting them ready to work; they also need new skills as computer technology continues to be woven into their daily lives. Lara & Whitter (2006) explained that using computer technology improves students’ learning process.
Ivers (2003) opined that beginning and experienced teachers can benefit from the role that computers play in teaching and learning; beginning teachers can access a wealth of teaching resources and learning opportunities via the internet as well as collaborate online with other teachers. Experienced teachers have these same benefits, as well as the opportunity to share their expertise with others. To this, Ivers (2003) further confirmed the situation in Kenya; that many veteran teachers have had to learn how to use computers on their own. Many teachers agree that the use of computer technology enhances teaching and learning (Wabuyele, 2006).
While the use of Computer Based Instructions (CBI) is important in most developed world schools, it is still a dilemma that poses a great challenges to the majority of teachers in Nigeria with regards to their perception and the roles they should play as they cope with this new technology. Advances in modern computer technology have changed the way we do many things including the way we learn, study and communicate and what goes on in the classroom today is impacted upon by the computer technology and will likely affect the skills that today’s children learn in schools and the way they are taught to function in the world (Kashorda, Waema, Omosa & Kyalo, 2007).
Kiarie (2014) posited that computers have been used at the university level in Kenya to teach Business Studies related courses such as Commerce, Entrepreneurship, Banking and others. In Nigeria, Fakeye (2010) said that beginning and experienced teachers can benefit from the role that computers play, beginning teachers can access a wealth of teaching resources while old teachers can share their knowledge with those who seek it. Fakeye (2010) also outlines the fact that Nigerian government conducted a pilot project of integrating computers in Sixty Secondary Schools and colleges with reasonable success, although access to computer resources was the biggest barrier in both rural and urban areas.
From researcher’s perspective, at the secondary schools level, it is not very clear whether Business Studies teachers use computers where they are available to them. It is obvious though that some teachers of Business Studies may be using computers even if it is only for the preparation of examinations and other social purposes. Keeping in view all of the variables discussed by different other researchers, this study is particularly knee on establishing whether computers were available at the secondary school level and verify whether they were used by Business Studies teachers and their learners during teaching and learning process in Kajola Local Government Public Secondary Schools of Oyo State.
Statement of the Problem
Usefulness of computers during teaching and learning process make the work of teachers easier as it helps in demysifing complex concepts in different subjects. Computers help students learn better by enhancing their learning environment and increasing learning resources. Availability of computers to Business Studies teachers is the first stage in the successful adoption of computers in teaching the subject in secondary schools (Kiarie, 2014). This is because teachers can only be competent and interested users of computers as teaching tools if they are available and easily accessible. Teachers will not adopt computer technologies into their instructional tasks if computers are not available in the first place.
Reid and Rushton (1985) in Kiarie (2014) concluded that, there are many challenges that hinder the process of using computers in the classroom. However, when effectively used, computers have a dramatic effect on teachers and learners. But where computers are not used effectively, they do not add value to teaching and learning.
The impact of computer in the teaching of Business Studies in Kajola Local Government Public Secondary Schools Area of Oyo State is not clear. Hence, this study find out the extent of computer availability and utilization to teachers and learners in public secondary schools in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State.
Purpose of the Study
The primary purpose of this study was to find out the extent of availability and utilization of computers in teaching and learning of Business Studies in Public Secondary Schools in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State.
Specifically, the study sought to determine the followings:
1. Investigate the availability and accessibility of general purpose computers to teachers and learners of Business Studies.
2. Ascertain the ways in which teachers and learners use computers for teaching and learning purposes in Business Studies.
3. Explore the main benefits of using computers in teaching and learning of Business Studies.
4. Investigate the challenges that teachers and learners experience when using computers for teaching and learning of Business Studies.
In the course of this investigation, responses were sought from the respondents to the following research questions.
1. How available and utilization are computers to the teachers and learners of Business Studies in Public Secondary Schools in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State?
2. For what purposes if any do Business Studies teachers and learners in Public Secondary Schools in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State use computers in their teaching and learning?
3. What are the main benefits of making use of computers in teaching and learning of Business Studies in Public Secondary Schools in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State?
4. What challenges faced by teachers and learners of Business Studies in their effort to use computers for teaching and learning in Public Secondary Schools in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State?
Scope of the Study
The study focused on availability and utilization of computers in teaching and learning of Business Studies in Public Secondary Schools in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State.
The scope of this study was limited to fifteen Public Secondary Schools in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State. 10 public secondary school were sampled out of fifteen public secondary schools in Kajola Local Government Area. 100 respondents were selected which comprised of one (1) Business Studies teacher each from the school amounting to 10 teachers and 90 students from all the schools (Male = 35 and Female = 55). The researcher used availability and utilization of computers in Teaching and Learning of Business Studies Questionnaire (AUCTLBSQ) to elicit information from the respondents (teachers and students). Descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentage was use to analyse respondents responses.
Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the findings of this study would be useful to teacher educators as it will help them understand the ways that influence teachers’ perceptions towards using computers as a means for effective development of teacher training curriculum that would prepare teachers to face challenges in information age. It will also help the Business Studies teachers to realize the instructional possibilities afforded by computer technology. This findings would provide tip offs for Business Studies teachers to realize that preparing students for the future goes far beyond the issue of getting them ready to work theoretically but they need the practice that comes with exposure provided by the computer technology. It was expected that the government and its relevant agencies like the Ministry of Education to justify the need to devote more resources in the national budget to computers and other related technologies such as smart boards in the classrooms because these are included in science and technologies, as this would then improve availability and use of computers for all teachers including those teaching Business Studies. The research findings hoped to trigger financial support either by the government and or its development partners as well as investors towards research on a wider scope to establish the availability and use of computers for teaching and learning. This could be beneficial to researchers, Business Studies teachers and teacher training institutions and in the long run to the education policy maker in Nigeria.
Operation Definition of Terms
Attitude: What influence an individual’s choice of action and response to a stimuli. Business Studies: Subject offered in Junior Secondary Schools in Nigeria.
Teaching resources: Materials intended for use by a teacher to improve or extend his/her teaching.
Cooperative learning strategies: A plan of action in gaining of knowledge and skills that is characterized by willingness of the learners and teachers to comply in the learning processes..