ACADEMIC EXPOSURE AND JOB PERFORMANCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS (A CASE STUDY OF IBIONOIBOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA).


ACADEMIC EXPOSURE AND JOB PERFORMANCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS (A CASE STUDY OF  IBIONOIBOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA).  

ABSTRACT

This study investigated “Teachers’ Academic Exposure as it influences their Job Performance among Secondary Schools in IbionoIbom Local Government Area”. The design adopted was based on survey design using ex-post-facto design. The study used stratified random sampling technique to select the teachers. A total of 400 secondary school teachers were selected for the study. Four research questions guided the study, four hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instrument used for the study was Academic Exposure and Job Performance Questionnaire (AEJPQ). Data was analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. The result of the study indicated that teacher years of teaching experience, academic status, participation in conference and professional development influences their job performance. This study therefore recommends that Government both at the federal and state level, school owners, principals and school administrators should be strict on the years of teaching experience, level of academic status, level of participation in conferences and professional background of people employed into the teaching profession.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Pages

Title page - - - - - - - - i

Declaration - - - - - - - - ii

Certification - - - - - - - - iii

Dedication - - - - - - - - iv

Acknowledgment - - - - - - - - v

Table of content - - - - - - - - vi

List of tables - - - - - - - ix

List of Appendices - - - - - - - - x

Abstract - - - - - - - - xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 4

1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - 6

1.4 Significance of the Study - - - - - - 6

1.5 Research Questions - - - - - - 8

1.6 Research Hypotheses - - - - - 8

1.7 Limitations of the Study - - - - - - 9

1.8 Scope of the Study - - - - - - 9

1.9 Definition of the Terms - - - - - - 10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE    

2.1 Theoretical Framework - - - - - 11

2.1.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory - - - 11

2.1.2 Social Learning Theory - - - - - - 14

2.2 Empirical Review - - - - - - - 17

2.3 An Overview of Professional Development for Teachers - 20

2.4 Teacher’s Quality and Students’ Academic Performance - 22

2.5 Needs for In-service Professional Development of Teachers 29

2.6 Challenges of In-Service Professional Development - 31

2.7 Research Gap - - - - - - - 33

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 Research Design - - - - - - 35

3.2 Area of Study - - - - - 35

3.3 Population of the Study - - - - - - 36

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique - - - - 36

3.5 Instrument of the Study - - - - - - 36

3.6 Validityand Reliability of the instrument - - 37

3.7 Instrumentation and  Data Analysis - - - 37

3.8 Data Collection Technique - - - - - 38

3.9 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 38

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

4.1 Data Analysis - - - - - - - 39

4.1.1 Research Question 1 - - - - - - 39

4.1.2 Research Question 2 - - - - - - 40

4.1.3 Research Question 3 - - - - - - 40

4.1.4 Research Question 4 - - - - - - 41

4.2 Testing the Null Hypotheses - - - - - 42

4.2.1 Test of Hypothesis 1 - - - - - - 42

4.2.2 Test of Hypothesis 2 - - - - - - 43

4.2.3 Test of Hypothesis 3 - - - - - - 44

4.2.4 Test of Hypothesis 4 - - - - - - 45

4.3 Major Findings - - - - - - - 45

4.4 Discussion of Results - - - - - - 46

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 50

5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 52

5.3 Educational Implications of the Findings - - - 52

5.4 Recommendations - - - - - - - 54

REFERENCE -------56

APPENDICES-------61

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is the bedrock of development. No nation can develop without sound education. Education has over the years been given much attention and priority in African countries, especially in Nigeria. The government has discovered that the quality of education offered in Nigerian educational system determines the quality of development experienced. Education prepares the citizens for variety of functions within the economic, social, political, religious and other structures of the societies. It makes individuals responsive, responsible and fit into the society. Teachers in the educational system serve as midwives because they are there to make education policies become realities. The needs for teachers to be regularly updated and developed continually to better their professional capabilities as regarding instructional delivery in their subject knowledge cannot be undermined.

Mkhwanazi (2010) defines teacher professional development as encompassing changes in teaching approaches which teachers can acquire towards teaching profession. Academic exposure involves development activities teachers can access within the teaching profession, to develop their teaching and learning tasks. Teachers’ academic exposure helps them to acquire relevant and new skills, ideas, knowledge to develop teaching and learning of their subjects (McFarlen, 1994). 

Teachers cannot rely only on the entry knowledge they start the career with, they need to experience professional growth like other professions. Their efficiency is measured or determined with students’ academic performance. Teachers are to be regularly developed to teach effectively. Their efficiency shows from their learners’ academic performance. In country like South Africa, mass failure of learners in subjects prompt Department of Education to call for professional development of teachers. The practices in the developed countries are different from this, teachers are programmed for different professional development activities that can improve them further or sustain the quality of education they have attained.

For quality education to be achieved and sustained, teachers are to be exposed to effective professional development activities. Teachers’ mastery of the subjects gets improved due to skills acquired in professional development. In the training activities, experienced facilitators are used to multi-task teachers’ intelligences to problem solving skills which improve their knowledge of their subjects. 

Academic performance of learners must be the driving force for teachers to be regularly developed. Teachers are to be exposed to various professional activities that can boost or promote development in all ramifications; Nigeria desires to be technologically developed like other developed countries and to really sustain her “giant” of Africa title. The needs for teachers’ empowerment through rigorous and well planned varieties of professional development of teachers across the profession should not be undermined. Drive for professional development of teachers in Nigerian schools will also propel other African countries to follow suit. Teachers’ professional development over the years has contributed immensely to student’s academic improvements. Lawal (2008) reported that teachers’ professional development has a direct influence on student’s academic improvement and hence, enhances their job performance.

However, it is the belief among many people that teachers in private secondary schools irrespective of their qualifications tend to be more dedicated to duties in terms of lesson delivery and commitment to goal actualization. Parents have preference for private secondary schools for their children because of some factors such as teacher commitment and dedication to duty, availability of staff, facilities, class size, curriculum practices, stability of academic calendar, disciplinary concerns and overall output. Teachers’ professional status had influenced academic success among students. A teacher who has been trained by a professional body like the National Teachers’ Institute can be said to be a professional in the teaching profession. The impact of a trained teacher will be far higher than an untrained teacher. This professional training affects a teachers’ job performance immensely due to the extra knowledge acquired. It was in the light of the above that that the need to examine the various ways by which secondary school teachers can be kept abreast of time and thus improve their quality and student’s academic performance become imperative.

1.2 Statement of the Problem 

Research studies have shown that many secondary school products in Nigeria are poor in reading, writing, computational and vocational skills (Leving, 2016). Many of them also perform woefully in various examinations. The parameter commonly used in determining school effectiveness is students’ results in standardized tests especially in external examinations (Afolabi, 2000). In the result released by WAEC for the 2014 May/June Senior Secondary School Examination, only 31.28% (529,425) candidates out of 1,692,435 candidates who sat for the examination had credits in five subjects and above including Mathematics and English Language as against 38.81% and 36.57% in 2012 and 2013 May/June examinations respectively. 

Though the result of May/June 2017 had recorded increase in the pass rate with 923,486 candidates representing 59.22% of a total of 1,471,151 candidates who sat for the examination scoring a minimum of five credits including Mathematics and English Language as against 52.97% in 2016, there is a lot more to be done therefore to encourage pass rate in schools. Since one of the purposes of education is the acquisition of knowledge and skills, students’ performance after graduation can be seen as a reflection of their performance in school. This also borders on the quality of human and material resources which are available during their schooling. For many years, educators and researchers have debated on which of the school variables that influence students’ achievement (Adewale, 2004). 

As policy-makers become more involved in school reform, greater attention is given to the role teachers’ quality plays on students’ achievement. There has also been an outcry from stakeholders in the educational sector such as union bodies (Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU), Senior Staff Association (SSANU), National Association of Academic Technologist (NAAT) etc), parents and concerned individuals about the poor provision of facilities for providing essential services for teaching and learning as well as their effective utilization. 

The genuineness of this outcry is depicted by the deteriorating poor performance of students in examination as earlier mentioned. Although several attempts have been made at improving teacher quality and teaching facilities, these efforts have not been proportionately reflected in students’ overall performance. Nowadays, people are employed into the teaching profession based on recommendations from relatives who are occupying higher positions in government. Some teachers pay huge sums of money before getting the job. Most of these employed teachers do not have any professional background. This gives rise to the high level of unqualified and unprofessional teachers in the school system. Therefore, there is the need for teachers to acquire enough skills to make them relevant technologically. Although many variables account for students’ academic performance such as adequacy of educational resources (both human and material) and their effective utilization and conducive learning environment. This study is concerned mainly to investigating the extent to which teachers’ academic exposure determines students’ academic performance in IbionoIbomLGA of AkwaIbom state.

1.3 Objective of the study

The main objective of the research is to examine the impact of teachers’ academic exposure as it influences job performance among secondary schools in IbionoIbomLGA. The specific objectives are as follows;

i. To determine the influence of teachers’ years of teaching experience on job performance in secondary schools.

ii. To determine the influence of teachers’ academic status on their job performance in secondary schools.

iii. To determine how teacher’s participation in conferences influences their job performance in secondary schools.

iv. To determine how teachers’ professional background influences their job performance. 

1.4 Significance of the Study 

The anticipated benefits of these research findings to teachers will be that teachers will be informed about the level of educational status and academic exposure they ought to have coupled with training and certification by a professional body before entering the teaching profession so as to increase their job performance and productivity. 

Also, with regards to students, the quality of teachers in a school will directly show in the high academic performance of the students. This research finding will benefit the students by helping them to decide on the academic performance they want to have in any school they choose by the quality of teachers in that school.

These research findings will help school administrators to know the quality of teachers they ought to employ in their schools to help enhance the academic performance of their students. The knowledge will also help school administrators to maximize profit as parents will only put their children in schools with quality teachers, thus, increasing the income strength of the school as a result of the increased number of students in that school.

Before education policy makers consider a policy in which it allows teachers to bring their years of experience with them for placement on a salary scale, it would be best to examine whether years of teacher experience and/or teachers’ academic status influences students’ achievement. These research findings will educate policy makers make policies that will help produce quality teachers in the society. It will also help them design school curriculum that is up-to-date with the changing times.

This study will equally serve as a spring board for other researchers who may be interested in the relationship between teachers’ academic exposure and job performance. 

1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide this study.

i. To what extent do teachers’ years of teaching experience influence job performance in secondary schools in IbionoIbom?

ii. To what extent does teachers’ academic status influence their job performance in secondary schools in IbionoIbom?

iii. To what extent does teachers’ participation in conferences influence their job performance?

iv. To what extent does teachers’ professional background influence their job performance? 

1.6 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated and were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

1. There is no significant influence of years of teaching experience on teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in IbionoIbom Local Government Area.

2. There is no significant influence of teachers’ academic status on their job performance in secondary schools in IbionoIbom Local Government Area.

3. There is no significant influence of teachers’ participation in conferences on their job performance in secondary schools in IbionoIbom Local Government Area.

4. There is no significant influence of teachers’ professional background on their job performance in secondary schools in IbionoIbom Local Government Area.

1.7 Limitation of the study

All research must conclude that an infinite number of factors are present and cannot be taken into account for various reasons; the same holds true for this study. Several of these limitations and delimitations were self-imposed, but most were due to factors outside of the researcher’s control. 

1. Lack of proper understanding of the questionnaire by some teachers may have affected the results of the findings. 

2. The growing cost of research materials also posed a challenge coupled with limited time available to conclude the research. 

1.8      Scope of the Study

Based on the above limitations, the scope of the study was limited to public secondary schools teachers resident in IbionoIbomLGA of AkwaIbom State. The variables considered was teachers’ years of teaching experience, academic status, participation in conferences and professional status as it influences their job performance.

1.9 Definition of terms 

Instructor degree level: This refers to the degree attained by the instructor in four categories: bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, specialist certificate and doctorate. “Graduate credit must be obtained from accredited institutions, pertain to the teaching field or to professional improvement, and must have been taken after completion of the previous degree to be accepted for salary increase purposes”. 

Student achievement: This refers to student scale scores on the standardized examination such as WAEC, NECO etc.  

Years of teaching experience: This refers to the number of years of teaching a teacher has in the classroom setting. 

Academic exposure: This refers to the level of access an individual has to educational materials such as attending conferences, trainings, research materials among others. 

Job performance: This refers to the accomplishment of a particular task given.

.

ACADEMIC EXPOSURE AND JOB PERFORMANCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS (A CASE STUDY OF IBIONOIBOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA).



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.ORG
Researchwap.org is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.org guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.org is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.org" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.