ASSESSING SELF EFFICACY FOR LEARNING AND FOR EMPLOYMENT BETWEEN REGULAR AND SANDWICH STUDENTS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION STUDIES IN UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, KWARA STATE
This study assessed the self-efficacy for learning and for employment between regular and sandwich students of primary education studies. The study found out whether self-efficacy for learning and for employment depends of students’ programme of study. This study employed descriptive survey research design. The population of the study consists all regular and sandwich students of the University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. A simple random sampling method was used to select 100 students across all the departments. A researcher’s designed questionnaire was used to elicit information on students’ self-efficacy for learning and employment. Descriptive statistics of percentage and inferential statistics of t-test were used for data analysis. Findings from the study revealed that the level of self-efficacy for learning and for employment among regular and sandwich students was high on majority; and that there was significant difference between the self-efficacy for learning among regular and sandwich students in favour of regular students. It was therefore recommended that both regular and sandwich students should be given opportunity to practice what they are studying while still in school; sandwich students should be sensitized on the need to have confidence in their learning ability; and that regular students should be orientated on the need to have high level of self-efficacy towards employment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 7
1.3 Purpose of the Study 7
1.4 Research Questions 8
1.5 Research Hypotheses 9
1.6 Significance of the Study 9
1.7 Scope of the Study 10
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 The Concept of Self Efficacy 13
2.2 Factors Affecting Self-Efficacy 19
2.3 Improving Self Efficacy 24
2.4 Classroom Interventions for Self-Efficacy 26
2.5 Self-Efficacy and Commitment 27
2.6 Relationship Between Self Efficacy for Learning and
Employment in Regular and Sandwich Students of Primary
Education Studies 64
2.7 Theoretical Framework 68
2.8 Summary of Reviewed Literature 73
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 75
3.2 Population of the Study 75
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 76
3.4 Research Instrument 76
3.5 Validity of the Research Instrument 77
3.6 Reliability of Instrument 77
3.7 Procedure for Data Collection 78
3.8 Data Analysis Techniques 78
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND INTERRELATION
4.1 Descriptive Analysis of Respondents 79
4.2 Answering Research Questions 80
4.3 Summary of Findings 84
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Discussion of the Findings 86
5.2 Conclusion 87
5.3 Recommendations 88
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies 89
1.1 Background to the Study
Self-efficacy has been defined as “the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute a course of action required to produce given attainments”. This differs from mere confidence by its emphasis on undertaking a course of action, as compared to simply holding an opinion or belief. In an educational setting, this definition was refined further to include the belief in one’s capabilities to successfully complete assigned academic tasks.
Academic self-efficacy has been extensively studied as a variable in student learning. A meta-analysis investigating the relationship between academic self-efficacy and achievements showed that increased academic self-efficacy made a positive contribution to academic performance. In addition to its influences on learning and performance, academic self-efficacy can affect learning strategies, specifically self-regulated learning. Self-regulated learning, which includes self-monitoring, self-evaluation, goal setting, and planning, contributes positively to academic achievement.
While many variables affect a person’s self-efficacy, four broad categories contribute most to its development. The first of these categories, past experience with a given task, plays an important role in the development of one’s belief that one could succeed at that task in the future. Secondly, present-day experiences, whether vicarious, in which the individual either observes or indirectly participates in the task, or mastery, in which the individual is a direct participant in the task, contribute to self-efficacy. The third category contributing to the development of self-efficacy is verbal persuasion, which emphasizes the role of teachers in cultivating the academic self-efficacy of their students. Lastly, biochemical changes (e.g. emotional responses) occur within the brain when one succeeds at a task, and this physiological arousal has been shown to contribute to the development of self-efficacy.
Perceived self-efficacy is concerned with people’s beliefs in their capabilities to produce desired outcomes (Bandura, 1997). People differ in the areas in which they develop their efficacy and the levels at which they develop it, even within their given pursuits. Thus, the efficacy beliefs system is not a global trait, but a differentiated set of self-beliefs linked to distinct realms of functioning.
In academic and learning settings, Niemivirta and Tapola (2007) opined that self-efficacy has bearing on both the level and type of goals people decide to strive for. It therefore follows that students’ self-efficacy beliefs consist of their belief to perform given academic tasks at designated levels. And the perceived academic self-efficacy as defined by Bandura is a personal judgment of one’s capacity to organize and execute courses of action to attain designated types of educational performance. Hence, students’ belief in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and to master academic activities determines their aspirations, level of motivation and academic accomplishment. Self-efficacy, trusting one’s abilities and powers for learning and performance, is a key trait for the academic success of university students (Hill, 2002). It is on this basis that Martinez-Pons (2002) classified self-efficacy into categories, one of which is academic self-efficacy and states that it reflects a student’s perceived capability with respect to the tasks a student is expected to perform in academic domain.
Apart from self-efficacy for learning, sandwich students are expected to have self-efficacy for employment. Self-efficacy for employment is one’s belief about his ability to work and face different employment demands. Research has shown the power of efficacy beliefs in different domains, for example, as a mechanism to face situations of occupational stress. For instance, it has been found that self-efficacy may act as a buffer in the presence of work stressors so that their negative impact is reduced (Grau, Salanova, & Peiró, 2000; Salanova, Peiró, & Schaufeli, 2002). Workers with higher levels of self-efficacy will not perceive demands as threats, but as opportunities to overcome and develop their skills; they will strive to obtain good results, and achievements will be interpreted as a result of their own effort (Bandura, 2002).
Efficacy beliefs influence the courses of action people choose to pursue, the challenges and goals they set for themselves and their commitment to them, how much effort they invest in given endeavours, the outcome they expect their efforts to produce, how long they persevere when faced with obstacles, their resilience to adversity, the quality of their emotional life, how much stress and depression they experience in co- ping with taxing environmental demands, the life choices they make and their accomplishments. For all these reasons it is important to take into account the construction workers’ levels of self-efficacy to understand their behaviour and their consequences (i.e., negligence and occupational accidents, as well as excellent performance at work). Self-efficacy for employment is a necessity for both sandwich and regular student.
The double-edged need to increase access to higher education and generate much needed revenue has informed the intent, development, and ultimately the introduction of current part-time programmes of study offered by Nigeria’s university system. According to Obemeata (1999) and Afe (1999) the expansion of part-time programmes must aim to accommodate both students seeking a university degree, as well as provide on-the-job training opportunities for those individuals who require new skills and/ or academic upgrading. In chronicling the relevance of outreach part-time programmes, Akintayo (1990) concluded that due to under-utilization of resources (physical capacity), coupled with increasing student demand for access to higher education opportunities, university’s must implement outreach programmes to address growing demand.
Part-time study comes in different forms one of which is sandwich programme. Sandwich study programme is a form of Adult education which United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, 2006) described as “the entire body of organized educational processes, whatever the content, level, method whether they prolong or replace initial education in schools, colleges and universities as well as in apprenticeship”. Thus, persons regarded as adults by society to which they belong develop their technical or professional skills and bring about changes in their attitudes or behaviours in two-fold perspective of full personal development and participation in balanced and independent social, economic and cultural development.
The sandwich and part-time degree programmes represent one of the last available opportunities or chances for becoming university graduates in Nigeria. This is because there are so many people who are also capable of learning but inadequately or deliberately were not opportune to do so because of certain reasons. Psychologically, it can be accepted that people who are mature and socially responsible and economically viable, technically qualified and mentally sound, may be considered as the beneficiaries of Sandwich Degree Programme or Course (Akinade, 2007).
Another form of studentship is the full-time students. Full-time students are students who are enrolled or accepted on regular academic basis for the purpose of obtaining educational credential offered by the institution. Contrary to the part-time students, the regular students are expected to be in the school always for the period of their academic activities, except on holidays. Whether full-time or part-time, students are expected to have a considerable level of belief in their learning and employability skills.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The concept of self-efficacy being a very important tool in the learning and employment sector is indeed a field to study. Having being defined earlier as the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute a course of action required to produce given attainments, it is evident that it is a concept to be examined in the context of higher institution education.
Nationwide, there has been a recurring trend of higher institutions churning out half baked graduates which cannot fit in to the labour market as employers find it hard to recruit these individuals. However, one must not forget that in order to track the underlying reason for this issue, we would end up at the concept of self efficacy.
Indeed there is an increasing need for the concept of self efficacy to be examined amongst Nigerian students so as to curb the incidence of poor quality of graduating students in higher institutions. For the purpose of this study, the population would be limited to the sandwich and regular students of primary education studies.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to assess the self-efficacy for learning and for employment between regular and sandwich students of primary education studies. Specifically, the study seeks to:
1. Find out the self-efficacy for learning among regular and sandwich students.
2. Find out the self-efficacy for employment among regular and sandwich students.
3. Find out if there is significant difference between the self-efficacy for learning among regular and sandwich students.
4. Find out if there is significant difference between the self-efficacy for employment among regular and sandwich students.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to streamline the conduct of the study:
1. What is the level of self-efficacy for learning among regular and sandwich students?
2. What is the level of self-efficacy for employment among regular and sandwich students?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses will be tested in the study.
1. There is no significant difference between the self-efficacy for learning among regular and sandwich students
2. There is no significant difference between the self-efficacy for employment among regular and sandwich students.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The outcome of this study will be of immense benefit to lecturers, school administrators, school counselors, students and other members of the public who may come across the result of the study. The research findings might be of great help to the government and other stakeholders by revealing the self-efficacy for learning and for employment between regular and sandwich students. This may probably guide the employers of labour on the belief of the students about their efficacy towards learning and work. The findings of this study might also be useful to stakeholders in education in establishing areas that have knowledge and skill gap in relation to human resource recruitment, as this study will throw more light into the self-efficacy for learning and for employment of regular and sandwich students.
This study will also show the difference between the self-efficacy for learning and for employment between regular and sandwich students. As such, it is hoped that the result of the study might be of great help to lecturers and school administrators by making them aware of the type of students with highest level of self-efficacy for learning and for employment between regular and sandwich students.
Finally, the findings of this study might be of great importance to those that will want to further research in areas relating to self-efficacy for learning and for employment between regular and sandwich students. The result might be a reliable source of information for intending researchers.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focused on self-efficacy and its relationship and effects on learning and employment for both regular and sandwich students of primary education studies. It spreads across other relatable constructs which encompass levels of self-efficacy, factors affecting self-efficacy and the likes. Data for the study is generated from both regular and sandwich students of primary education studies.
1.8Operational Definition of Terms
Self-Efficacy: Bandura (1997) defines self-efficacy as one’s beliefs in one’s aptitudes or abilities to execute the necessary actions required to successfully complete forthcoming tasks or behaviors.
Learning: The acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught.
Employment: The state of having paid work..