KNOWLEDGE OF FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR OF IN-SCHOOL ADOLESCENT
Background to the study
Adolescence is a time when young people are learning a great deal about themselves and adjusting to a rapid change in their bodies. World Health Organization (WHO 1995) views adolescent as person between 10 – 19 years and they are made up of 20% of the world’s population of 5 whom 85% of them live in developing countries. During early ado1lescence, many experience new uncertainties about their bodies and how they function. They need information and assurance about what is happening to them. As they mature, some feel confused about what they are supposed to do in a variety of situations including level of relationship with family and peers, coping with new sexual feelings and trying to access conflicting message about who they are and what is expected of them (Comprehensive Sexuality Education, 1991).
In the past, it was normal to protect adolescents from receiving education on sexual matters as it was falsely believed that ignorance would encourage chastity yet. The rampant unprotected sexual activities among adolescents and the devastating consequences in evidence of the sexual and reproductive health behaviour of Nigeria Youth confirm that they had not been formally taught about sexuality, their information on this important subject came from peers, new, magazine, and biology classes (Comprehensive Sexuality Education, 1991).
Many young people without guidance from responsible adults make decisions daily about sexuality, relationship and health issues and many times, decisions are not based on accurate information or on clear and well considered values. Many adolescents lack the cognitive skills to understand the connections between their actions and long-term consequences (Brindis, 1991). Parents, educators and communities all face the challenge of creating environment that support and nurture good sexual health. Young people need family-life education programmes which are otherwise known as sexuality education which refers to curricula designed to provide information that will help young people make healthy decision and choices (Brindis, Pittman, Reys, 1991). This programme models in teaches them to have positive worth, be responsible, understanding an acceptance of diversity and sexual health.
Many in-school adolescents still believe that family-life education would encourage “sexual experimental” and several studies have been conducted to determine whether family-life education programme actually increase young people’s sexual involvement. One of these is the land mark study commissioned by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1993 which conclusively showed that contrary to long-held beliefs.
No significant relationship exists between receiving formal sexuality education and initiating sexual activity. Rather, sexuality education result in postponement or reduction in the frequency of sexual activity and more effective use of contraception and adoption of safe behaviour (Comprehensive Sexuality Education, 1991). Instead of informing adolescent only about the health risk and potential negative consequence associated with sexual activity, adult need to provide young people with more balance messages. Adolescents need accurate and comprehensive. Instead of informing adolescent only about the health risk and potential negative consequence associated with sexual activity, adult need to provide young people with more balance messages. Adolescents need accurate and comprehensive education about sexuality to practice health sexual behaviour as adults. Early exploitative or risky sexual activity may lead to health and sexual problems such as unwanted pregnancy and sexuality transmitted disease including Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
The in-school adolescents need to receive clear, protective messages about sexual decision making, but they need to hear affirming messages about healthy relationships and healthy sexuality. Sexuality is more than “sexual activity”. It deal with many aspects of life including biological, gender roles, body image and interpersonal relationships, thought, believe, values attitudes, feelings and sexual behaviour. Therefore, it is important to study the relevance of the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent in Ifelodun Local Government, Kwara State.
Statement of the problem
In Nigeria, like many developing countries adequate attention has not been given to the development of family-life education programmes despite the high rate of unwanted pregnancy, school dropouts STD/HIV/AIDS, sexual abuse drug abuse and many more among in-school adolescent. Efforts by Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) to design and implement in junior and senior secondary school, family-life education and sexual behaviour curricular with the hope of reducing adolescent pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) are yet to yield expected results. The assumption is that if adolescent are positively influenced by the family-life education programmes received in schools, it is likely to have great impact on their sexual relationships and overall, sexual and sexual adjustment.
A study carried out by population reference Bureau (2000) revealed that one third (36.5 million) of Nigeria total population of 123 million are youth between the ages of 10- 24 (The Bureau, 2000). By 2005, the number of Nigeria youth will exceed 57 million (United Nations, 1999). Lack of sexual health information and services places these young one at risk for early pregnancy, abortion, dropout, sexually transmitted infections (STI), and HIV/AIDS. In additions, early marriage and child bearing limit youths educational and employment opportunities after school. Yet effective innovative programmes can provide in-school adolescent with the sexual health-information and services they need.
Over 16% of teenage female reported first sexual intercourse by age 15. Among young woman age 20 – 24 nearly half (49, 4%) reported first sex by age 15. among these ages 20 – 24, 36.3% reported first sexual intercourse by 18 (the commission, 2000). In one survey of sexually experienced teens, over 13% of woman and over 27% of men reported exchanging money, gifts, or favours for sex in the previous 12 months (The Commission 2000).
In 1999, Nigeria’s adolescent fertility rate was 111-births per 1,000 young girls aged 15 – 19 and average Nigeria woman have more than five births during their life time. Teenage mothers were more likely prone to senior complications than older woman during delivery, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality for both mothers and infants. Performing or seeking for an abortion is illegal in Nigeria, except to save a woman’s life. Yet experts estimate that more than 600,000 Nigerian woman obtain abortions each year (Henshaw, etal, 1998).
Otoide (2001) stated that, one third of woman obtaining abortions were in-school adolescents. His hospital based studies showed that up to 80% of Nigeria patients with abortion related to complications were in-school adolescents.
The parent study on how the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour programmes can influence the sexual behaviours of in-school adolescent was motivated by the study Hacker (2000). He stated that 19.2% of students said they have less information about contraception from their parents’ nor community health centre, classes or teachers. Therefore, the research wishes to determine how the knowledge of family life education can influence them positively.
The following are the research questions raised in to guide the conduct of this study:
1. What is the knowledge level of in-school adolescent about family life education?
2. What are the sexual` behaviours of in-school adolescent?
3. Is there any difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent on the basis of age?
4. Is there any difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent on the basis of religion?
5. Is there any difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent on the basis of gender?
The following null hypotheses were formulated from the research questions raised.
1. There is no significant difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents based on age.
2. There is no significant difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents based on religion.
3. There is no significant difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents based on gender.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to ascertain the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents in Ifelodun Local Government Area (L.G.A.). Also it is to determine their knowledge levels on family life education and know the sexual behaviour common among the in-school adolescents in the Local Government Area.
The study also is to ascertain if there is difference between the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent on the basis of age, religion and gender.
Significance of the Study
The importance of a well-organized, efficient and effective family life education programme is a fundamental need to any modern nation, and this is a universal truism. A country is which the in-school adolescent are well informed is assured of prosperity and a well adjusted citizenry. This study is therefore tremendously significant in the sense that its findings would provide adolescents and parents with ample data on the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents.
The findings of this study would benefit psychologists and other helping professional who are interested in the development of appropriate sexuality programmes for adolescent among the Nigerian populace. The findings of this study are relevant to the schools, student, parents, counsellors, government and non-government agencies e.t.c. The students would be able to see the need to enhance themselves with the appropriate knowledge on family life programmes and know the sexual behaviour to avoid. Parents would benefit from the finding of the study. Parents will have better understanding on the sexual behaviour of their children and know how to foster right sexual behaviour in them. The study will help the school counsellor to guide the students appropriately.
The government will see the need to further finance the family life education, promote it in all schools and organize regular seminars or workshops for teaching in order for them to have a better understanding of the students they are leadings.
The findings of the study will benefit the helping professional or non-governmental agencies in organizing relevant seminars for the students and teachers, to know how to check vices among students and promotes chastity among in-school adolescents.
Scope of the Study
The researcher is concentrating mainly on the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent in Ifelodun Local Government Area, Kwara State. The research selected six secondary schools in the local government area. The schools were junior and senior secondary schools.
The selections of the schools were when done using simple random sampling technique. The researcher randomly select 300 (Three hundred) students for the study from the selected school at Ifelodun Local Government Area, Kwara State. Therefore 50 students were been randomly selected from each of the selected schools.
Operational Definition of Terms
Adolescent: A person between 10 – 19 years of age.
Adolescence: A period between childhood and adulthood when a number of dramatic physical changes and important physical, emotional and social development occur.
Family-life Education: Also called sexuality education, sexual and family health promotion, family living and life skill education are designed to provide information that will help young people make healthy decision and choices about their sexuality.
Sexual Behaviour: Refers to the behaviour that provides pleasure and possible arousal of the sexual organs. Sexual behaviour, it is what people do sexually with other or themselves, how they present themselves sexually, how they talk and act.
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter focuses on the review of related literature to the research work on the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents in Ifelodun Local Government Area of Kwara State. The literature has been reviewed under the following sub-headings:
⦁ Concept of adolescence
⦁ Concept of family life education programme
⦁ Factors associated with adolescents sexuality
⦁ Characteristics of a sexually health adolescents
⦁ Concept of sexual behaviour
⦁ Sexual behaviour of adolescents
⦁ Relationship between knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of adolescents
⦁ Summary of literature reviewed
The family does not exist in a vacuum. It is interrelated with four other basic institutions of society: religions, economics, and government and education institutions. Changes in one area dramatically affect the other. As the Nigerian society become more complex, there is a gradual increase in the awareness of people that yesterday’s methods do not effectively solve contemporary problems of society. This is because new ideals and information are needed in early all facet of the society. Tim and Beverly Lahaya (1998), states that our society’s well-being in widely believed to be closely related to family stability. Erosion of family bond is generally regarded as a threat to the nation’s social fabric. People sense that their faces are linked with the future of marriage and the family as social institution.
The rapid and social changes in Nigeria have greatly influenced the structure and functions of families. In view of the increasing number of families, parents and youths problems, it is considered necessary to put greater effort to help individual and families adjust themselves in the wake of a rapidly developing community.
In Nigeria, as elsewhere in African, the home is the primary context for the care of young children, as parent and extended family members are usually the primary caregivers. The responsibility of taking care of young children is not limited to the parent alone but with contributions from the extended family and even the community as a whole. These provide a wide range of stimulating interaction for the child that positively nurture the child development, particularly in psychological terms (UNICEF, 2001).
However, much more advocacy is needed at the country level so that government communities and families would recognize the needs, vulnerability and potentials of adolescents. Failure to meet the needs of young people set the stage for self-destructive behaviour and behaviour harmful to others. We have to emphasize that a relevant response to their needs will contributed to their health development and growth to responsible adulthood and a positive contribution to society.
The in-school ado1lescent needs to be equipped with the knowledge and skills in coping with changing roles and demand in life, and developing a proper attitude towards their responsibility in the family life on sexual matters..