AGE AND GENDER DISCRIMINATION BY ACCREDITED SCHOLARS AND RESEARCHERS
1.0 Background to the Study
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1.1 Statement of the problem
A nation economic growth is largely dependent on productivity of various organizations that form its industrial and economic component, thus what states will the economy is if the human capital resource employed and controlled by these entities is not productivity enough it will be due to discrimination faced in workplace. Age and gender decrease job satisfaction and makes the employees emotional battle, elimination of age and gender discrimination is crucial for the satisfaction and motivation, commitment and enthusiasm and less stress of costly waste of valuable resource of the organization because it can lead to law suit and poor public image.
Discrimination of staff will lead to a high rate of turnover and this could cause great strain on the limited resource of the organization as new staff will need to be employed and trained in order to fit into the job roles.
1.2 PURPOSE\OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
age and gender discrimination are social vice that threaten to rip apart the fabric of any productivity organization, especially in a country like Nigeria where there is need for more jobs thus it is pertinent for organization to remain in business and grown to employ the teeming population of unemployed youth. Discrimination can destroy any organization. So this research objective is:
i. To identify if there is a significant relationship between age and gender discrimination and employees performance in the work place.
ii. To review if there is corporate culture in the workplace that can effectively discourage age and gender discrimination in workplace.
iii. To assess if there are effective remedies available to any form of discrimination in workplace.
iv. To establish if age and gender discrimination has any effect on labor turnover of the company.
1.3 research question.
What are the perception of people toward age and gender discrimination on the growth and development of the ministry of foreign affair? The following are question that will be asked and answered by this research.
⦁ Is there any significant relationship between age and gender discrimination and employee performance in the ministry of foreign affairs?
⦁ Are there corporate cultures or policies that encourage age and gender discrimination in the ministry of foreign affairs?
⦁ Will age and gender discrimination lead to employee dissatisfaction and demoralization in the work place?
⦁ does age and gender discrimination lead to a high rate of employee turnover in ministry of foreign affairs?
1.4 significance of study.
There is need to understand the importance of the relationship between age and gender discrimination as it effect employee performance. the success or failure of organizations depend largely on the quality of human resource employed in that company therefore employers and human resource manger are concerned about the method or techniques that can improved productivity, while elimination vice like age and gender discrimination that could negatively impact employees there is need of review company operational policies in order to discover grey area that could be international and domestic law established to eradicate discrimination, the law include equal employment opportunity commission (EEOC)us until code no federal regulations. Moreover, the research will establish the relationship between age and gender discrimination and employee turnover with a view to resolving employee turnover of foreign affairs.
1.5 THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESE
The following hypothesis will be tested in this study:
i. HO: there is no significant relationship between age and gender discrimination and employees performance
H1: there is significant relationship between age and gender discrimination and employees performance.
ii. HO: age and gender discrimination does not decrease the job satisfaction among the employee in the workplace.
H1: age and gender discrimination decrease job satisfaction among employees in the workplace.
iii. HO: Age and gender discrimination does not reduce commitment and enthusiasm in women workers.
H1: age and gender discrimination reduce commitment and enthusiasm in women workers.
iv. HO: age and gender discrimination does not increase labor turnover in an organization.
H1: age and gender discrimination increase labor turnover in the organization.
1.6 scope and limitation
This research was conduct to assess age and gender discrimination in workforce in the ministry of foreign affairs, data were taken from this company using interview, observation and questionnaire,. This study has measured the effect and age and gender discrimination on the job satisfactions and motivation commitment and enthusiasm and stress level of the employees in relation to employee’s performance. The challenges faced are:
⦁ Shortage of personnel
⦁ Problem of distance.
⦁ Employees uncooperative attitude toward question asked and
⦁ Inadequate funds to support the study or research
1.7 operational definition of terms.
Age – that part of the duration of a being or thing who is between its beginning and any given time, specifically the size of that part.
Gender – is the range of physical, mental, and behavioral characteristics pertaining to and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Depending on the context, in term may refer to biological sex ( i.e male, female or inter sex), sex-based or gender identity.
Dissatisfaction – the state or altitude of not being satisfied, discontent, displeasure about something.
Demoralization – to undermine the confidence or moral of a person.
Employees – an individual who works part-time or full –time under a contract of employment, whether oral or written , express or implied , and has recognized right and duties also called worker.
Perception – is the organization, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment.
Organization – a social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a need to pursue collective goal
Productivity; is the ration of output in production, an economic measure of output per unit of input.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This project work was broken into five chapters. The first chapter comprises of general introduction of aspect of the study. Which include the background of the study, important of the study, research methodology, definition of term and how the study was organized.
The second examine the historical background of age and gender discrimination in work place and effect, the theoretical perspective and summary.
The third chapter examine the research methodology, the research design, the sample size and sampling techniques, the instrument used , description of study population, Data collection procedures and problem encounter during Data collection.
The forth deal with the analysis and presentation of data chapter five deal with the discussion of results, recommendation and conclusion of research project.
Geoffrey wood (2018). Age discrimination and working life. perspective and contestation
A LAN WAIKER (11998). Age and employer’s attitude, practices and policies towards older worker.
2.0 REVIEW OF AGE AND GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN WORK IN PLACE AND EFFECTS
This literature review shall take account of what has been published on age and gender discrimination by accredited scholars and researchers. A lot of works have been done on age discrimination but the little research material was found for gender discrimination.
Also, no work was found to have researched the two together has a concept. First, work on age discrimination were reviewed.
THE NATURE AND AGE PREVALENCE OF AGE DISCRIMINATURE.
In a study of the perception of different age group, garstka, hummert ,and branscombe,2015 found that both old and younger worker are strongly that they are discriminated against vis-à-vis other age cohort. In the nineteenths century, the preference for youth was a matter of cheap labor, the mill girls in indwell and the boys in northern England workers for wages well below of those of adult, in today capitalism that low-wage preference for youth still exist, most notable in factories and sweatshop of the less developed part of the world(like Nigeria). Bout other attribute of youth now seem to make appealing in higher reaches of labor, and this lie more in the realm of social prejudice’’*(sennett1998).
In advertising and IT, a worker as young as 40 can be consider to old(Duncan and kloretto2004).furthermore, with the age discrimination, everyone can be either an oppressor or victim, at least at some stage in the lifecycle( Duncan and loretto2004) age discrimination is also subtle, often with the older worker discourage from following job lead and told there are no suitable vacancies or that they are over qualified(shen and kleiner2001)workplace discrimination
Negative stereotypes that older worker are somehow less flexible or less receptive to new technologies or skill remain widespread(sargeant2001).there are many other stereotype affecting older worker, including the less flexible, more resistant to change, less alert, and generally less productivity(tagi 22002).older worker may also be perceived as less reliable for health reasons, and their knowledge undervalued(Austin and droussitis2004) therefore, ,manager are less likely to provide support for the career development of older workers (Nevmark 2003). Promotion opportunities for older workers are particularly less prevalent in jobs that require flexibility ,creativity and higher motivation.
The Nature and prevalence of Gender Discrimination.
‘Gender’, normally confused with ‘sex’, may be defined as how the roles and relations between women and men have been socially constructed. However , gender affiliation and identity is strongly influenced and formed by cultural values , social interaction and family , but sex is phenomenon that is biologically determined , and would describe the physical part on an individual , such as composition , body structure facial hair and genitalia (Bryson , 2007). Therefore, males and females are separated by their biological characteristics known as sex . sex is biological and permanent , while gender is social and temporary , changing with the culture and attitude of the society (Bryson , 2007)
Workplace discrimination on the basis of gender orientation and gender identity remains a problem in the workplace and carriers significant economic consequences. Discrimination by employers leads to a mismatch between qualified workers and the job for which they are best suited . this mismatch reduces productivity and harms business workers and the economy..