READING WITH BRAIN IN MIND AND STUDENTS’ STUDY HABITS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE
The study examined the influence of reading with brain in mind on students’ study habits in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Specially, the study was carried out in order to determine the extent to which students’ engagement, time, repetition and input quality can influence students’ study habits. Four research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the conduct of the research work. A descriptive research design was used for this study. The population of the study consisted of 1635 SS2 students, while 200 SS1 students were randomly selected from 4 public secondary schools in Uyo as sample size. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data. The questionnaire was duely examined and validated by the researchers supervisor. The data collected were subjected to Mean Standard Deviation for answering research questions and independent t-test for testing of hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that students low engagement rate, with less time for reading significantly influence thief study habits. It was recommended, among other thing, that schools and parents should endeavour to create time for students’ engage them more in reading their books as well as ensuring that they read proper without indulging in unnecessary repetitions. The would bring about improvement in the student’s study habits as well as their reading culture.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgment - - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - xi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems - - - - - - 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - - 5
1.4 Significant of the Study - - - - - - 6
1.5 Research Question - - - - - - - 6
1.6 Research Hypotheses - - - - - - - 7
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study - - - - - 7
2.1 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - 9
2.2 Conceptual Framework - - - - - - 11
2.2.1 The Concept of Reading and Reading Habits Among Students - 11
2.2.2 Students Engagements in Reading and Study
Habits in English - - - - - - 18
2.2.3 Repetition in Reading and Study Habits in English Language - - - - - - - - 22
2.2.4 Time and Input Quantity in Reading - - - 25
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Area of the Study - - - - - - - 29
3.2 Design of the Study - - - - - - - 30
3.3 Population of the Study - - - - - - 30
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique - - - - - 30
3.5 Instrumentation - - - - - - - 31
3.6 Validation of Research Instrument - - - - - 31
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - 32
3.8 Administration of the Instrument - - - - 32
3.9 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - - 33
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Answering of Research Questions - - - - - 34
4.1.1 Research Question 1 - - - - - - - 34
4.1.2 Research Question 2 - - - - - - - 35
4.1.3 Research Question 3 - - - - - - - 36
4.1.4 Research Question 4 - - - - - - - 36
4.2 Testing of Hypotheses - - - - - - - 37
4.2.1 Hypothesis I - - - - - - - - 37
4.2.2 Hypothesis 2 - - - - - - - - 38
4.2.3 Hypothesis 3 - - - - - - - - 39
4.2.4 Hypothesis 4 - - - - - - - - 40
4.3 Summary of Findings - - - - - - - 41
4.4 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - 41
4.4.1 Students’ Engagement in Reading and Study Habits - - - 41
4.4.2 Repetition in Reading and Study Habits - - - - 42
4.4.3 Time Factor in Reading and Study Habits - - - - 43
4.4.4 Input Quantity and Study Habits - - - - - 43
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 45
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 45
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - 46
References - - - - - - - - 48
Appendix - - - - - - - - 52
1.2 Background of the Study
Reading is an indispensable language skills in the life of the everyone and in every school system. In fact, evidence shows that reading influences student’s performance in academic subjects and in later life Ekah (2015). This explains why it is generally believed that one of the fundamental objectives of education is to produce a literate citizen and as a consequent, all educated people in the world are expected to be able to read and write. Anyone who is not educated is regarded as an illiterate, no matter the amount of commendable knowledge of community status the person possesses.
Reading has been described as an active process which involves the cognitive processing of information in written form. It is the process of constructing meaning from written text. However, neither of these definitions focuses on the sounding out of words, sound out words is an important skill but very secondary to the art of comprehending and thinking in the mind. Comprehending and reading is what therefore reading is all about.
There has been a lot of controversy in the past about how children and students learn to read or study for examinations. According to Drummond (1999), available researches show that there is no best way to learning to read and that almost every method practiced can be successful. Ekah (2015) argued that there are all sorts or factors involved learning to read. What becomes strikingly important in the controversy is that a child learns how to read not so much by adapting among members of the general public. Still, the definition of reading seems to be unresolved.
Sybil (1994) defined reading as a process of communicating, through which most formal learning take place. It involves understanding written language and responding to the author’s message. This implies that when one is reading, one has to be “thinking, predicting, questioning, evaluating, defining and redefining”. Manzo and Thomas (2002) defined reading simply as meanings for coded messages. This means an act of simultaneously “reading the lines, reading between the lines and reading beyond the lines”(25). Reading the lines, according to the author, refers to the act of decoding the words in order to contract the author’s basic message. The next part, “reading between the lines” implies making inferences and understanding author’s implied message and third part, “reading beyond the lines” involves judging of the significance of the author’s message and applying it to other areas of background knowledge (26).
Reading, which is an important language skill, requires training. As Gordon (2003) posited, educational programs, that teach the young sufficient coding skills and knowledge about subject matter to enable them learn through reading are required” (124). This implies that inculcating a reading culture should be introduced at an early age among children in order to bring about good study habits. The challenge therefore is to inculcate the habit of reading in children so that it is as important as sports and other hobbies. Kola Wole and Kolawole (2007) remarked that most students lack good reading culture due to several factors such as lack of functional libraries in schools, lack of adequate reading time, poor reading skills and environmental factors. From the foregoing, it is obvious that besides time factor mentioned students engagement, repetition in reading and input quantity are factors hindering students study habits in reading. Students engagement refers to the degree of attention, curiosity, interest, optimism and passion that students show while they are reading or learning, which extends to the level of motivation they have to learn or read and progress in education (KolaWole and KolaWole, 2007).
Repetitions in reading are often perceived as disruptive, signaling the kind of careless reading symptomatic of random eye movement or without paying careless attention to context. When words read are repeated, it distorts meaning and hinders. Concentration thereby affecting students study level. Input quantity in the other hand, is concerned with the efforts or level of concentration exerted in reading in order to achieve a relevant purpose.
Time in reading is a major factor militating against students’ study habits. According to Hismanoglu (2005), with a hectic schedule, students are unable to spend sufficient time reading. If any reader does not have enough time to read, he or she will lose out in improving themselves. The work therefore sets out to examine how factors hindering reading with brain in mind can influence students’ study habits in English language.
Enuesike (2008) regards repetition as an aspect of regression. The author above sees regression as a bad habit in which one lets his eyes more backwards over what one has just read instead of pressing steadily forward. Repetition or regression impedes comprehension and interrupts progress in thought (49).
Ok Alo (2008) viewed reading as an essential tool for the acquisition of knowledge. Reading is considered as a means whereby information stored in books can be obtained and utilized for a variety of purposes, one of which is to gain knowledge and obtain information. The researcher above recognizes reading activity as a parameter of responsible for students’ study habits. Students who do not read regularly lack good study habits and consequently perform poorly in the English language written or oral examinations. Reading promotes students’ creativity and intelligence and allows students to go beyond the limit of the classroom work (51).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, it has been observed that students’ study habits have been on the negative or disadvantaged rate students reading culture has dwindled drastically. They are at which a child studies his books, as a result keeps falling, such that in public examinations organized by West African Examination Board, students perform poorly especially English language.
The reason for the menace is not far fetched, students no more read intensively and consciously, they no more read with brain in mind, rather they engage in all forms of examination malpractices ranging from impersonation, cheating to copying. Worst still, some of the teachers and stakeholders who are supposed to be models engineer this act and render the students dependent upon such malpractices. Time for reading is no more considered priority and the skills in reading are not taught well if at all are mentioned in English classes. It is on this platform that the researcher undertakes a study to determine the reading with brain in mind on students’ study habit in English language.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study seeks to achieve the following objectives:
1) To examine the influence of students’ engagement in reading on students’ study habit in English language.
2) To determine how time management or factor influence students’ study habits.
3) To ascertain the influence of repetition in reading and students’ study habits
4) To examine the influence of input quantity in reading and students’ study habits
1.4 Significant of the Study
The study will be significant to educational stakeholders, especially those of the secondary school level. The following are to benefit from the study: students, teachers, parents, curriculum planners and the public.
The students as a result of this work, will improve on their reading culture having been aware of the problems and factors associated with reading and the consequences of repetition in reading. The teachers will learn to give premium to reading than every other language skill since reading qualifies a literate. They may as well change the teaching techniques to bring about positive outcome. The parents will assist in inculcating good reading culture in their children, thereby enhancing good study habits. The curriculum planners will ensure to incooperate reading or reading related subject in the curriculum besides English language.
The teachers will consider if necessary to create time for reading in class and outside class. Their level of input in the effort to ensuring the students’ study habits improve will be higher.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated to guide the conduct of the research:
1) How does engagement in reading influence students’ study habits in English?
2) To what extent can time factor influence students’ study habits in English?
3) Hoe does repetition in reading influence students’ study habit in English?
4) To what extent can input quantity in reading influence students’ study in English?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
Four research hypotheses are being formulated namely:
1) There is no significant influence of engagement in reading on students’ study habits.
2) There is no significant influence of time factor on students’ study habits.
3) There is no significant influence of repetition in reading on students’ study habit.
4) There is no significant influence of input quantity in reading on students’ study habits.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The present work undertakes a study of reading with brain in mind and students’ study habits in English language. Text books (theoretical and empirical), Atticus and internet are primary source of information. School in Uyo Local Government Area form the population of the study. The study is also limited to students’ engagement in reading, time factor; repetition reading and input quantity of students in reading SS1 students in Uyo L.G.A will form the class population.
Operational Definition of Terms
i) Engagement in Reading: This refers to the level of attention and interests those students’ shows while they are reading printed or non-printed materials.
ii) Time Factor: This refers to the aspect of reading which often distorts reading habit and concentration. It is a limited hour allotted for reading moment.
iii) Repetition: This is the process of only through works or sentences again in a text in order to capture its message fully. It can be disruptive.
iv) Input Quantity: This is the effort excreted on the reading exercise by both teachers and students so as improve study habits.
v) Reading with Brain Mind: This refers to cognitive kind of reading in which one concentrates or pays maximum to reading.
vi) Students’ Study Habit: The characteristics or behaviour exhibited by students with regards to study is students’ study habit..