DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED QUANTITATIVE AND VERBAL REASONING TUTOR FOR NURSERY AND PRIMARY SCHOOLS
Computer Assisted Instruction today presents new options and opportunities: powerful Machines, advanced computer science techniques, and input from cognitive psychology. Using these tools well is a challenge for which there are few guidelines or examples. The Purpose of this write up is to describe how we used some simple artificial intelligence Techniques in a powerful educational programming environment to capture some of the Expertise of experienced teachers for an instructional program that runs on advanced Workstations.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A look at the educational practices many people will perceive that there are some obstacles besetting the teaching of quantitative and verbal (English) reasoning in nursery and primary schools now days.Computer Assisted Instruction today presents new options and opportunities: powerful Machines, advanced computer science techniques, and input from cognitive psychology.
Using these tools well is a challenge for which there are few guidelines or examples. The Purpose of this write up is to describe how we used some simple artificial intelligence Techniques in a powerful educational programming environment to capture some of the Expertise of experienced teachers for an instructional program that runs on advanced Workstations.
HOW COGNITIVE TUTORS CAN HELP
The above discussion suggests that we need a "tool" that will engage students with quantitative and verbal problems covering more than the current week's topic. Ideally, this tool would encourage students to use variety of skills and to apply these skills in the context of real-world data sets. We propose that cognitive tutors offer one way to do just that. The name "cognitive tutor" refers to a computerized learning environment whose design is based on cognitive principles and whose interaction with students is based on that of a (human) tutor—i.e., making
comments when the student errs, answering questions about what to do next, and maintaining a low profile when the student is performing well.
What is a Cognitive Tutor?
A cognitive tutor is a computer system that has both (a) a problem-solving engine that gives it the capacity to generate step-by-step solutions and (b) an enriched interface that allows students to communicate their own step-by-step solutions. These two components enable the system to track students' problem-solving processes at a detailed level and offer individually tailored feedback and hints. That is, the student takes a step by interacting with the computer interface, and the problem-solving engine judges the appropriateness of that step in the current situation, responding (if necessary) based on its knowledge of what step it would have taken and why. In addition, by collecting a database of information on individual students' performance, the system can make inferences about students' states of knowledge and suggest additional exercises that could remediate any apparent gap(s)
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The basic problems of this design is to implement a reliable computerize tutor for nursery and primary school students on quantitative and verbal(English) reasoning as the basic subjects. Before building a cognitive tutor for quantitative and verbal reasoning, it made sense to us to look for data that could help shape such an endeavor. There is much evidence that students have difficulty applying quantitative reasoning as a subject. We added to this body of empirical work by further investigating where (and hopefully why) these difficulties arise in the context of solving quantitative-reasoning problems.
Quantitative reasoning domain tests your ability to use numbers and mathematical concept to solve mathematical problems, as well as ability to analyze data presented in a variety of ways, such as in table or graph form. only a basic knowledge of mathematics is required
All the quantitative reasoning problems takes the form of multiple choice questions that is; questions followed by four responses, of which only one is the answer.
Quantitative reasoning questions consist on two categories of questions 1.questions and problems and graph or table comprehension.
English tutorial in other words verbal reasoning is multimedia based application intended to help nursery and primary school students, middle school student, high school student or in general, anyone interested in learning to learn the basic of English. The contents of the application are organized into different modules that comprises of interactive learning programs to develop skills for reading and writing alphabets, words, and sentences. The animations, pictures and sounds teach the association of objects and word along their spelling and pronunciation.
. English tutor helps the learner understand and practice basic conversation skills with vocabulary, how to greet people, knowing more about them, how to make use of the language in their daily routine, how to invite people and how to request or ask for a favour from them. Making the user aware of the scenarios which the user come across when going around a place, about basic necessities, making him know the objects he may come across, things he may need while planning a journey, skills of describing a place, people the user have across e t c, about the way of answering a telephone call, basic etiquettes of talking on phone, extempore questions and their model answers.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Thepurpose of this study is to design and implement a computerized tutor for primary school students on quantitative and verbal reasoning as the subject of focus, and ensure positive performance of every student involved.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
At the end of this study;
1. We will be able to understand the effectiveness of using a computerized tutor in the teaching of quantitative and verbal reasoning in nursery and primary schools
2. We will understand the negative and positive impact of implementing this.
3. Design and implementation of a computerized tutor for nursery and primary school will be possible
The study which is to design and implement a computerized tutor for nursery and primary school students on quantitative and verbal reasoning as the subjects would have covered a wider scope but for time and financial constraints, however the findings could be used to make valid generalizations and implement a computerized tutor in the specified fields.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Tutor ;a private teacher, especially the one who teaches an individual or a small group
Computerized ;to provide a computer or computers to do the work of something
Teachers ; a professional that are foundation of quality education, hence teachers production are retention to effective education as an instrument per excellence for national development
Students;a person who is studying at aschool.A boy or a girl attending school or anyone who devotes acquisition to knowledge.
Cognitive; connected with mental processes of understanding
Quantitative Reasoning ; testing of ones ability to use numbers and mathematical concept to solve mathematical problems, as well as ability to analyze data presented in a variety of ways
Verbal Reasoning; testing of ones ability to use alphabets and verbal concept to solve English like problems,
Implementation; to make something that has been officially decided start to happen or be used
Design; the general arrangement of the different part of something that is made, such as building books, machines etc.
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter deals with the review of the works of several scholars that are related to the present study.
Investigations and research (fletcher Flynn and Gravatt, 1995) has shown that heavy investment have been made in the development of computerized learning in the UK. The purpose of investment have not been clear or made explicit, part of the drive towards greater use of technology in education is aimed at modernizing schools and equipping the pupil of today with skills that will make them able to use such technology in work place when they leave school, other stated goals is to reduce teachers work-load and also reducing bureaucracy by providing and exchanging information in electronica from.
Perhaps the ultimate goal in promoting the use of computerized tutor in schools has been to increase the effectiveness of teaching and improve pupils learning. It’s this goals that is the focus for the questions underpinning this review;
1. What is the evidence that computerized tutor can make positive impact on students learning in schools.
2. How can computerized tutor be used effectively in schools to improve pupils learning
There are evidence that computerized tutor can help students learn more effectively. However there is not a simple message in such evidence that computerized tutor will make a difference simply by being used. Findings suggest that computerized tutors can improve learning but some issues have to be put to consideration
First is the modest effect of computerized tutor, second is the almost negligible effect of the provision and use at general level.
However a study effect of thinking skills or metacognitive approaches(marzano 1998) indicates that the average impact would move a class from 40% to about 65 to 70%.
Also a study by the British educational technology association (BECTA, 2000) found no link between level of resources for computerized learning and either reading or mathematics grades at stage 1 in 1999, at stage 2 there was a significant but weak association between computerized tutor and students attainment. This indicates that at general level it makes a little impact..